¿Me da mi calaverita?

calaveritas(Mex) En México, la muerte no es una calavera sombría de toga negra que blande una hoz, sino una dama ostentosa y engreída que se pavonea entre los vivos con extravagantes vestidos y sombreros, toda ella cubierta de flores y sarcasmo, invitando a los de éste lado a seguirla, seducidos, por esa ola multicolor con flores de cempazuchitl –la flor del inframundo-, calaveritas de azúcar y pan dulce con forma de huesos, como diciendo que la vida no es tan dulce como la muerte.

Dentro de ese ambiente de fiesta, en los primeros días de noviembrem  se funde también el cariño, el respeto y la convivencia porque el día de muertos es, además de celebración, ritual familiar a través del acto en conjunto de montar los altares, preparar la comida favorita del difunto, colocar el agua y prender las velas -que son las señales de vida- que guiarán a las almas desde el otro lado a esa reunión con sus seres amados, a esa comunión  con la vida desde la muerte que recibe a los espíritus entre papel de colores, copal y recuerdos.

El día de muertos es una fiesta colectiva, de pueblo, de celebración en el cementerio local que, a media noche, se prende con miles de velas para recibir a los difuntos mientras los habitantes cenan con sus muertos en las tumbas; mientras los vivos se comen a la muerte en pan con chocolate caliente.

Así, la fiesta es determinada por imágenes sarcásticas pero familiares, casi entrañables, de la muerte que reafirman, al mismo tiempo, imágenes de identidad nacional a través de la fusión del rito mortuorio prehispánico con las fiestas católicas herencia de la colonia, siempre mirando la unificación y el homenaje de la calavera, la Catrina, la calaca: imagen central del día de muertos.

      Sin embargo, el proceso de modernización de México – ocurrido a mediados del siglo XX- que conllevó la introducción de la radio y, posteriormente, de la televisión, el cinematógrafo y de los usos norteamericanos tan en boga después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial –el American way of life– suscitó no sólo la introducción de artículos de consumo estadounidenses, sino la introducción de usos culturales que afectaron –o modificaron- los existentes en México o, por lo menos -de manera casi inmediata- de la capital. Entonces, en contraste con la festividad de día de muertos, muy pronto el Halloween y sus calabazas empezaron a colarse entre las calacas de azúcar.

El Halloween tiene origen en la festividad celta del Samhain y la festividad cristiana del Día de todos los santos. Los antiguos celtas creían que la línea que une la vida con el otro Mundo se estrechaba con la llegada del Samhain, permitiendo a los espíritus (tanto benévolos como malévolos) pasar a través y llegar al nuestro.

Los ancestros familiares eran invitados y homenajeados mientras que los espíritus dañinos eran alejados, de ahí el uso de trajes, máscaras y fogatas especiales como la Jack O’Lantern, calabaza perforada con forma de rostros y con una vela dentro o el Trick or Treath, derivados ambas costumbres de viejas leyendas celtas.

La celebración de Halloween llegó a Estados Unidos en 1840 después de una gran ola migratoria desde Irlanda. Sin embargo, la fiesta no comenzó a celebrarse masivamente hasta 1921, año en que se realizó el primer desfile de Halloween en Minnesota.

La fiesta adquirió una progresiva popularidad en las siguientes décadas hasta su internacionalización definitiva a finales de los años 70 y principios de los 80 gracias al cine y a las series de televisión además del enorme  despliegue comercial y a la publicidad engendrada entorno a, una vez más, las imágenes del Halloween que perdió –en Estados Unidos- la fuerza y sentido de su origen celta para enfocarse al sentido de horror, violencia y monstruosidad.

Progresivamente, el 1 y 2 de noviembre fue mostrando una combinación cultural entre ambas festividades desde los medios y las costumbres: se encuentran en los tianguis , junto a las calaveras de dulce, las flores de cempazuchitl, el pan de muerto y el papel picado a las calabazas anaranjadas, los maquillajes sanguinolentos, los disfraces mal hechos y el uso del sentido del terror tan característico de la cinematografía del género, pero tan opuesta a la naturaleza del día de muertos mexicano.

Hasta las expresiones, influencia del Halloween, se han transformado: la vieja expresión ¿me da para mi calaverita? se usaba para pedir una limosna específica con el fin de comprar las velas para la ofrenda, pero ante la influencia del Treath or Trick, la expresión cambió de uso a los niños que salen disfrazados a pedir dulces en las calles.

Actualmente, y consecuencia a esa convivencia de imágenes contrastantes, existe un debate –casi contienda- cultural entre ambas celebraciones que enfrenta un posible  problema a futuro en lo que respecta a las imágenes y a las concepciones culturales de las fiestas en cuestión: la posible desaparición de las festividades del día de muertos por el Halloween o la sincretización de ambas festividades en las generaciones futuras hasta la deformación de la fiesta original.

Entonces basta con ver la realidad para descubrir que los procesos culturales no son –ni pueden ser- tan tajantes: a la llegada de noviembre tanta fuerza tienen las imágenes terroríficas como las tradicionales; en los hogares, se monta la ofrenda y se disfrazan los niños; en el centro capitalino hay pan de muerto y adornos de calabazas. Los medios difunden la tradición de la ofrenda y se organizan fiestas de Halloween.

Se observa, cada temporada, que ambas festividades conviven –y se integran- en relación a la sociedad a la que pertenecen. Aquí la cuestión es, ¿podemos hablar de la posibilidad de extinción de una tradición que, a pesar de las influencias extranjeras, sigue manteniéndose firme e inclusive pura en poblados y regiones indígenas o no céntricas?

Nuestra actualidad de imágenes es ya ambigua, calidoscópica. La cultura no es –ni puede ser- unívoca porque la realidad misma no lo es. En todo caso, la tarea ante tradiciones foráneas que amenacen a las nacionales no debe seguir el ataque –inútil- de aquellas, sino la preservación de las últimas a través de la transmisión, la valoración y la difusión. Pero sobre todo, entender que los contactos culturales pueden renovar o enriquecer tradiciones siempre y cuando no se pierda de vista el objetivo principal.

AM

1.343 Comments

  1. Do you have a spam problem on this blog; I also am a blogger,
    and I was wondering your situation; many of us have developed some nice methods and we are looking
    to trade strategies with others, be sure to shoot me
    an email if interested.

  2. My brother suggested I might like this website.
    He was entirely right. This post actually made my day.
    You can not imagine just how much time I had spent for this information! Thanks!

  3. Do you have a spam issue on this website; I also am a blogger, and I
    was curious about your situation; many of us have developed some nice practices and we are looking
    to swap methods with others, please shoot me an e-mail if interested.

  4. I do not even know how I ended up here, but I thought this post was great.
    I don’t know who you are but definitely you’re going to a famous blogger if you aren’t already 😉 Cheers!

  5. Hello there, You’ve done a fantastic job. I’ll certainly digg it and personally suggest to my friends.
    I am sure they will be benefited from this website.

  6. Very good blog! Do you have any suggestions for aspiring writers?
    I’m hoping to start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost on everything.
    Would you advise starting with a free platform like
    Wordpress or go for a paid option? There are so many choices out there that I’m
    totally overwhelmed .. Any tips? Thanks a lot!

  7. Very energetic blog, I liked that bit. Will there be a part 2?

  8. Hello, I want to subscribe for this website to get most up-to-date updates, therefore where can i do it please help out.

  9. Greetings from Colorado! I’m bored to death
    at work so I decided to check out your blog on my iphone during lunch break.
    I enjoy the information you present here and can’t wait to take a look when I get
    home. I’m shocked at how fast your blog loaded on my cell phone
    .. I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyways, amazing blog!

  10. What i do not understood is in reality how you’re now not actually much more
    neatly-favored than you might be now. You are very intelligent.
    You know therefore significantly on the subject of
    this matter, made me for my part believe it from numerous various angles.
    Its like men and women aren’t involved except it is one
    thing to do with Girl gaga! Your personal stuffs great. At
    all times care for it up!

  11. Hey! This is my first visit to your blog! We are a collection of volunteers and starting a new project in a community in the same niche.
    Your blog provided us valuable information to work on. You
    have done a outstanding job!

  12. Hello! I know this is kind of off topic but I was
    wondering which blog platform are you using for this website?
    I’m getting tired of WordPress because I’ve had problems with hackers and I’m looking at alternatives for
    another platform. I would be fantastic if you could point me
    in the direction of a good platform.

  13. Really when someone doesn’t understand then its up to other visitors that they will assist, so
    here it happens.

  14. I’m truly enjoying the design and layout of your website.

    It’s a very easy on the eyes which makes it much
    more pleasant for me to come here and visit more often.
    Did you hire out a developer to create your theme?
    Great work!

  15. With havin so much written content do you ever run into any issues of plagorism or copyright infringement?
    My website has a lot of exclusive content I’ve either created myself
    or outsourced but it looks like a lot of it is popping it up all over the internet without my agreement.
    Do you know any ways to help stop content from being
    ripped off? I’d certainly appreciate it.

  16. obviously like your website but you have to check the spelling on quite a
    few of your posts. Several of them are rife with spelling issues and
    I find it very troublesome to inform the truth nevertheless I will definitely come
    again again.

  17. We stumbled over here by a different page and thought I might check things
    out. I like what I see so now i’m following you.
    Look forward to checking out your web page yet again.

  18. Greate pieces. Keep posting such kind of info on your site.
    Im really impressed by your site.
    Hey there, You’ve done an excellent job. I will certainly
    digg it and individually suggest to my friends.
    I’m sure they will be benefited from this website.

  19. Hmm is anyone else having problems with the images on this blog loading?
    I’m trying to find out if its a problem on my end or if it’s the blog.

    Any feedback would be greatly appreciated.

  20. Greetings from Los angeles! I’m bored at work so I decided to browse your blog on my iphone during lunch break.
    I really like the knowledge you provide here and can’t wait to take a look when I get home.
    I’m shocked at how fast your blog loaded on my mobile ..

    I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyhow, excellent blog!

  21. hello there and thank you for your info – I have definitely picked up
    something new from right here. I did however expertise a few technical
    issues using this website, since I experienced to reload
    the site many times previous to I could get it to load properly.

    I had been wondering if your hosting is OK?

    Not that I am complaining, but slow loading instances times will often affect your placement
    in google and could damage your high quality score if ads and marketing with Adwords.
    Anyway I am adding this RSS to my email and can look out for much more of your respective exciting content.
    Make sure you update this again soon.

  22. It’s really very complicated in this active life to listen news on Television, so I just use the web for that purpose, and obtain the
    newest information.

  23. I for all time emailed this blog post page to all my contacts, as
    if like to read it after that my contacts will too.

  24. Wow, fantastic blog layout! How long have you been blogging for? you made blogging look easy. The overall look of your website is magnificent, as well as the content!

  25. Appreciate this post. Let me try it out.

  26. Hello i am kavin, its my first time to commenting anyplace, when i read this post i
    thought i could also create comment due to this good paragraph.

  27. This is true for funding advice as nicely.

  28. Hola! I’ve been reading your weblog for some time now and
    finally got the courage to go ahead and give you a shout
    out from New Caney Tx! Just wanted to mention keep up the
    excellent job!

  29. Today, I went to the beachfront with my
    kids. I found a sea shell and gave it to my 4
    year old daughter and said “You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear.” She placed the shell
    to her ear and screamed. There was a hermit crab inside and
    it pinched her ear. She never wants to go back! LoL I know this is completely off topic but I had to tell someone!

  30. This design is incredible! You definitely know how to keep a reader amused.
    Between your wit and your videos, I was almost moved to start my own blog (well,
    almost…HaHa!) Fantastic job. I really enjoyed what you had to say, and more than that, how you presented it.
    Too cool!

  31. Hi there! I could have sworn I’ve been to this web
    site before but after browsing through many of the posts I realized it’s new to
    me. Nonetheless, I’m definitely delighted I discovered it
    and I’ll be book-marking it and checking back
    often!

  32. I have been exploring for a little bit for any high quality articles or weblog posts in this sort of area .
    Exploring in Yahoo I finally stumbled upon this site.

    Studying this information So i’m satisfied to exhibit that I’ve a very
    just right uncanny feeling I found out exactly what I needed.
    I most no doubt will make sure to do not disregard this site and give it a glance regularly.

  33. each time i used to read smaller content which as well clear their motive, and that is also happening with this article which I am reading here.

  34. What’s Taking place i’m new to this, I stumbled
    upon this I have discovered It absolutely helpful and
    it has helped me out loads. I am hoping to
    give a contribution & help other customers like its aided me.

    Great job.

  35. Definitely believe that which you said. Your favorite reason appeared
    to be on the net the easiest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I certainly get annoyed while people
    consider worries that they just don’t know about. You managed to
    hit the nail upon the top and also defined out the whole thing
    without having side effect , people could take a signal.
    Will likely be back to get more. Thanks

  36. Very good blog! Do you have any suggestions for aspiring
    writers? I’m planning to start my own website soon but I’m a
    little lost on everything. Would you recommend starting with a free platform like
    Wordpress or go for a paid option? There are so many
    choices out there that I’m totally overwhelmed ..
    Any ideas? Cheers!

  37. Hmm is anyone else experiencing problems with the images on this
    blog loading? I’m trying to find out if its a problem
    on my end or if it’s the blog. Any feedback would be greatly appreciated.

  38. Hello it’s me, I am also visiting this web page daily, this website is in fact fastidious and the visitors are really
    sharing fastidious thoughts.

  39. Hi! Do you know if they make any plugins to help with Search Engine Optimization? I’m trying to get my blog to rank for
    some targeted keywords but I’m not seeing very good
    success. If you know of any please share. Cheers!

  40. Great article, just what I was looking for.

  41. My brother recommended I might like this website.

    He was totally right. This post actually made my day.
    You cann’t imagine simply how much time I had spent for this information! Thank you!

  42. Have you ever thought about including a little bit more
    than just your articles? I mean, what you say is valuable and everything.

    But imagine if you added some great visuals or
    video clips to give your posts more, “pop”!
    Your content is excellent but with images and video clips,
    this blog could undeniably be one of the best
    in its field. Very good blog!

  43. I’ve been exploring for a little bit for any high quality articles or
    weblog posts on this sort of house . Exploring in Yahoo I ultimately stumbled upon this web site.
    Reading this information So i’m glad to show that I have a very just right
    uncanny feeling I found out exactly what I needed.
    I most no doubt will make certain to don?t forget this site and give
    it a glance regularly.

  44. Everything is very open with a really clear explanation of the issues.
    It was definitely informative. Your website is very useful.

    Many thanks for sharing!

  45. Appreciating the commitment you put into your site and in depth information you provide.
    It’s awesome to come across a blog every once in a while that
    isn’t the same out of date rehashed information. Wonderful read!
    I’ve bookmarked your site and I’m including your RSS feeds to my Google account.

  46. Say, you got a nice post.Really looking forward to read more. Fantastic.

  47. Thanks for sharing this good write-up. Very inspiring! (as always, btw)

  48. Really when someone doesn’t know after that its up to other users that
    they will help, so here it takes place.

  49. Hello there! I know this is kind of off topic but I was wondering which blog
    platform are you using for this website? I’m getting fed up of WordPress because I’ve had problems with hackers and I’m looking at options for another platform.

    I would be fantastic if you could point me in the direction of a good platform.

  50. Spot on with this write-up, I absolutely feel this web site needs a lot more attention. I’ll probably be returning to see more, thanks for the info!

  51. I blog quite often and I genuinely appreciate your information.
    Your article has truly peaked my interest. I will bookmark your
    blog and keep checking for new details about once a week. I subscribed to your RSS feed too.

  52. Hey there! Quick question that’s entirely off topic.

    Do you know how to make your site mobile friendly?
    My site looks weird when viewing from my apple iphone.

    I’m trying to find a template or plugin that might
    be able to resolve this issue. If you have any recommendations,
    please share. Thanks!

  53. After I originally commented I seem to have
    clicked on the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now each time a comment is added
    I receive 4 emails with the same comment. Perhaps there is a way you are able to remove me from
    that service? Cheers!

  54. Have you ever considered about adding a little bit more than just your articles?
    I mean, what you say is important and everything.
    But just imagine if you added some great graphics or video clips to
    give your posts more, “pop”! Your content is excellent but with images and video clips, this blog
    could definitely be one of the greatest in its field. Very good blog!

  55. This piece of writing is genuinely a fastidious one it assists new internet users, who
    are wishing for blogging.

  56. You’ve made some good points there. I checked on the web to learn more about the
    issue and found most people will go along with your views on this web site.

  57. This article offers clear idea in support of the new people of blogging, that
    truly how to do blogging.

  58. I’m not that much of a internet reader to be honest but your blogs really nice, keep
    it up! I’ll go ahead and bookmark your website to come back later on. Many thanks

  59. It’s remarkable to pay a quick visit this website and reading the views of all colleagues concerning this post, while I am
    also zealous of getting knowledge.

  60. Hey There. I discovered your weblog the usage of msn. That is a
    really smartly written article. I will be sure
    to bookmark it and return to learn extra of
    your helpful information. Thank you for the post.
    I will definitely comeback.

  61. I’m truly enjoying the design and layout of your blog.

    It’s a very easy on the eyes which makes it much more pleasant for me
    to come here and visit more often. Did you hire out a developer to create your theme?
    Outstanding work!

  62. excellent issues altogether, you simply won a new reader.
    What could you recommend about your put up that you simply made a few days ago?
    Any sure?

  63. I was recommended this web site by my cousin. I’m not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed
    about my problem. You’re wonderful! Thanks!

  64. I’m really impressed with your writing skills
    as well as with the layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself?

    Either way keep up the excellent quality writing, it is rare to see a nice blog
    like this one these days.

  65. That is a really good tip especially to those fresh to the blogosphere.
    Short but very precise information… Thank you for sharing this one.

    A must read article!

  66. Hmm is anyone else having problems with the images
    on this blog loading? I’m trying to find out if its a problem on my end or if
    it’s the blog. Any feed-back would be greatly
    appreciated.

  67. Hey very cool website!! Guy .. Excellent .. Amazing ..

    I will bookmark your website and take the feeds also?

    I’m satisfied to search out so many useful information right here in the post, we’d like work out
    extra strategies in this regard, thank you for sharing.
    . . . . .

  68. Hello mates, its enormous paragraph regarding tutoringand fully explained, keep it up all the time.

  69. Its like you read my mind! You appear to know so much about this, like you wrote
    the book in it or something. I think that you can do with a
    few pics to drive the message home a little
    bit, but other than that, this is magnificent blog.
    An excellent read. I will definitely be back.

  70. Very good info. Lucky me I discovered your blog by chance (stumbleupon). I have book marked it for later!

  71. Hey! Quick question that’s completely off topic.
    Do you know how to make your site mobile friendly? My site
    looks weird when browsing from my iphone 4. I’m trying
    to find a template or plugin that might be able to resolve this problem.
    If you have any suggestions, please share. Cheers!

  72. No matter if some one searches for his essential thing, so he/she desires to be available that in detail,
    thus that thing is maintained over here.

  73. This particular blog is really interesting additionally amusing. I have discovered a bunch of helpful advices out of this blog. I ad love to come back again soon. Thanks!

  74. It’s a shame you don’t have a donate button! I’d definitely donate to
    this fantastic blog! I guess for now i’ll settle for book-marking and adding
    your RSS feed to my Google account. I look forward to brand new updates and will talk about this blog with my Facebook group.
    Chat soon!

  75. Everything is very open with a very clear explanation of the challenges.
    It was really informative. Your site is extremely helpful.
    Thank you for sharing!

  76. I was able to find good information from your blog posts.

  77. I have been exploring for a little for any high quality articles or blog posts
    on this kind of house . Exploring in Yahoo I ultimately stumbled upon this web site.
    Studying this info So i’m glad to express that I have a very excellent uncanny feeling I discovered exactly what I needed.
    I so much for sure will make sure to don?t omit this
    site and provides it a look on a continuing basis.

  78. It’s perfect time to make some plans for the long run and
    it’s time to be happy. I have read this post and if I may
    just I wish to suggest you few attention-grabbing issues or suggestions.
    Maybe you can write subsequent articles regarding this article.
    I desire to read more issues about it!

  79. Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally,
    it seems as though you relied on the video to make your point.
    You definitely know what youre talking about, why throw away
    your intelligence on just posting videos to your site when you could be giving
    us something enlightening to read?

  80. I’m curious to find out what blog system you have been utilizing?
    I’m experiencing some minor security issues with my
    latest blog and I would like to find something more safe.
    Do you have any recommendations?

  81. you are really a good webmaster. The website loading pace is amazing.
    It sort of feels that you’re doing any unique trick.
    Also, The contents are masterpiece. you’ve done a magnificent activity
    in this subject!

  82. Everyone loves it when individuals get together and share
    views. Great blog, continue the good work!

  83. For most recent news you have to pay a visit
    the web and on internet I found this site as a most excellent website for most recent updates.

  84. Everyone loves it whenever people get together and share ideas.
    Great blog, stick with it!

  85. You made some decent points there. I looked on the internet for the issue and found most individuals will agree with your site.

  86. I was curious if you ever thought of changing the page layout of your site?
    Its very well written; I love what youve got to say.

    But maybe you could a little more in the way of content so people could
    connect with it better. Youve got an awful lot of text for only having 1 or 2 images.
    Maybe you could space it out better?

  87. Pretty! This has been an incredibly wonderful article. Thanks for providing this information.

  88. I think this is a real great blog post.Much thanks again. Keep writing.

  89. Great delivery. Great arguments. Keep up the great work.

  90. wow, awesome article.Really thank you! Keep writing.

  91. I am extremely impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout
    on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you customize it
    yourself? Either way keep up the nice quality writing, it
    is rare to see a nice blog like this one nowadays.

  92. Wow, that’s what I was searching for, what a information! present
    here at this web site, thanks admin of this website.

  93. Thanks to my father who told me concerning this weblog,

  94. Hello, i think that i noticed you visited my web site thus i came
    to return the want?.I’m trying to find issues to improve my website!I suppose its adequate to make use of a few of your concepts!!

  95. Greetings! This is my first visit to your blog!
    We are a team of volunteers and starting a new project in a community in the same niche.
    Your blog provided us beneficial information to work on. You have done a
    outstanding job!

  96. Thanks for the article post.Really thank you! Keep writing.

  97. I visited various websites but the audio quality for audio songs present at this site is actually superb.

  98. I couldn’t resist commenting. Very well written!

  99. Hi, its pleasant post regarding media print, we all know media is a
    great source of facts.

  100. Wow! This can be one particular of the most helpful blogs We ave ever arrive across on this subject. Basically Magnificent. I am also an expert in this topic so I can understand your hard work.

Leave a Reply

Tu dirección de correo electrónico no será publicada. Los campos obligatorios están marcados con *

*