100 años sin Posada

Ciudad de México.- El historiador Agustín Sánchez escribió: “Hace cien años, en un modesto féretro, yacía un personaje conocido como don Lupe, cuya muerte pareció no importar a nadie. Salió de unas de las tantas vecindades marginales de Tepito, en la Ciudad de México. Fue enterrado en la zona de sexta clase, la única gratuita del Panteón de Dolores.”

A cien años de su muerte, la preparatoria “José Guadalupe Posada”, ubicada en lo que era el predio de La Fortaleza, en pleno corazón del barrio de Tepito (expropiado en 2007 por el gobierno del Distrito Federal), es desde el pasado 22 de enero, sede de una exposición de la obra del maestro.

100 años sin Posada —que pretende ser permanente— conmemora el centenario luctuoso del ilustre grabador con la muestra de 17 imágenes en gran formato, cinco de ellas en tamaño mural. Todas las cuales se encuentran acompañadas por textos de Octavio Paz, Carlos Monsiváis, Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco, Jean Charlot y Juan José Arreola.

Las reproducciones que componen esta muestra recuperan la crítica social propia del artista mexicano, así como a sus inmortales calaveras. La curaduría de la muestra, a cargo de Vanessa Bohórquez, directora de la Colección Blaisten, sostiene de alguna forma aquél dicho de Rafael Barajas “Fisgón”, cuando afirma es Posada el más grande artista popular que ha parido nuestra nación.

Posada, personaje ignorado en su tiempo

José Guadalupe Posada nació el 2 de febrero de 1852, en Aguascalientes. Desde pequeño mostró una gran disposición para el dibujo, aunque no fue hasta sus dieciséis años que pudo ingresar en el taller profesional de Trinidad Pedroso, reputado maestro de quien aprendió los secretos del arte litográfico. Desde entonces trabajó en diferentes talleres de grabado, para diferentes periódicos de la época, como son La Casera, El Chile Piquín, El Diablito Rojo, Don Cucafato, El Malcriado, El Paladín, Ave Negra y La Guacamaya; y para revistas como El Jicote, tanto de su natal Aguascalientes como en la Ciudad de México, en donde vivió los últimos años de su vida.

El personaje más conocido del notable grabador es, sin duda, la calavera conocida como “La Catrina”. Con esa representación, Posada se mofaba de las mujeres indias de México que aspiraban a comer garbanzo o ser garbanceras como las damas de alcurnia españolas que vivían en el país, una imagen después inmortalizada por Diego Rivera en el mural Sueño de una tarde dominical en la Alameda Central (1946), y que goza de su propio de exhibición en el corazón de nuestra ciudad. Sin embargo, según el historiador Agustín Sánchez González, los grabados esqueléticos del artista representan apenas el 3% de una vasta producción que alcanza las 20 mil obras.

Sus antiguos grabados pueden verse en periódicos, cajetillas de cerillos, recetarios de cocina, vitolas de poros, medicamentos, carteles taurinos, teatrales, circenses, juegos de mesa y funciones de lucha libre, entre muchas otras superficies de la época porfiriana y revolucionaria. Posada dibujó a la gente del pueblo y al entorno de su época.

Cabe mencionar que desde el pasado 20 enero —fecha en que se conmemoró el centenario de su muerte—, el Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes (Conaculta) realizó el Homenaje Nacional a José Guadalupe Posadas, una celebración que concentró un centenar de actividades, entre exposiciones, presentaciones editoriales, conferencias, coloquios, ciclos de cine, programas literarios, danza, música y teatro.

Sin embargo, más allá de tan grande homenaje, Agustín Sánchez, conocedor e historiador de la obra Posada, lamentó que no exista todavía —de parte de ninguna institución cultural del país— un estudio serio de la vida del caricaturista, ni se lleve a cabo la preservación de su obra con verdadera profesionalidad.

| RMM | JLGH |

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