Adolfo Sánchez Vázquez a sus 95 años

 por Jorge Alberto Reyes López

sanchez 

 (Mex) El filósofo hispano-mexicano Adolfo Sánchez Vázquez (nacido en Algeciras, Cádiz, el 17 de septiembre de 1915), que este 2010 culmple 95 años, ha sido sin duda alguna una de las más importantes figuras del marxismo internacional durante la segunda mitad del Siglo XX y lo que va del Siglo XXI. Exiliado político en México a la edad de 24 años durante la Guerra Civil Española a finales de 1930, formó parte del primer grupo de refugiados españoles que llegaran en el barco Sinaia, acogidos el General Lázaro Cárdenas, presidente de México. Frente a su condición, de exilio Sánchez Vázquez declararía más tarde: “el exiliado vive siempre escindido: de los suyos, de su tierra, de su pasado”. Al filósofo se le ha considerado como uno de los exiguos teóricos que influyó notablemente, por el vigor de su original y heterodoxa obra, una renovación del marxismo “realmente existente” (o del marxismo dogmático de la ex Unión Soviética), que consistió en la tarea de construir un proyecto de socialismo humanista, crítico y democrático, según lo ha indicado Jesús Ramírez Cuevas.

Su compromiso con el socialismo y su militancia política antifascista lo llevaron a afiliarse a la Juventud Comunista en su mocedad. Fue en esa época el director del periódico Ahora de las Juventudes Socialistas Unificadas. Así también, y gracias al estímulo de Emilio Prados, desarrolla su talento literario manifestado en sus notables escritos poéticos a partir de los años 30s. Ambas dimensiones propiciaron en el autor la vocación de estudiar filosofía para investigar los problemas fundamentales entorno a sus dos grandes actividades intelectuales y prácticas, mediante la investigación de la estética y la filosofía política.

En 1935 inició el estudio de la filosofía en la entonces Universidad Central de Madrid (hoy Complutense de Madrid), la que abandonaría inconclusa por la presión del franquismo. Cabe destacar, no obstante, que la primera carrera que eligió el joven Sánchez Vázquez fue la de Letras en la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. De esta época, y a causa de sus relaciones con importantes escritores refugiados españoles y mexicanos, participa en la fundación de las revistas Romance, España Peregrina y Ultramar. Publicó su primer libro de poesía intitulado El Pulso ardiendo  (1942). Posteriormente se integra de manera permanente a la carrera de filosofía en la Facultad de filosofía y Letras de la UNAM. Ya como licenciado imparte sus primeras cátedras en la Universidad nicolaita de Morelia, en Michoacán. En 1959 adquiere el nivel de profesor de tiempo completo en la UNAM, en donde su práctica docente se realiza en las cátedras de ética y estética durante 50 años ininterrumpidos en la Máxima Casa de Estudios.

En el entendido de su discípulo más notable, Gabriel Vargas Lozano, la obra de Sánchez Vázquez se ha desarrollado en disciplinas tales como: la ética, la estética, la filosofía política, la filosofía de la historia y crítica literaria.

En el campo de la estética ha realizado varias aportaciones trascendentales.  Una de las cuales se presenta en su primera obra publicada, Las ideas estéticas de Marx (1965),  a la que le sigue una amplia antología de Estética y Marxismo (1970). En estos textos, Sánchez Vázquez elaboró una teoría del arte a partir de la noción del trabajo creador y productor (y no como actividad reiterativa) del ser humano (como la nota esencial de éste), a partir de los manuscritos del joven Marx de 1844. En este sentido, se opuso de forma rigurosa al simplismo del realismo socialista y del modelo no-marxiano de la superestructura ideológica y, por consiguiente, de examinar el arte únicamente como una derivación secundaria. 

Asimismo, examina el valor de la ética en el socialismo. Sánchez Vázquez insiste en que la ética socialista a construir no puede derivarse de meros fines utilitarios, egoístas, o privilegiando cualquier medio en el cumplimiento de un cierto fin (aun el de la revolución). En este sentido, la posición de nuestro autor en lo relativo al acto moral consiste en que éste debe de circunscribirse hacia el bien que ofrezca una transformación a favor de su comunidad y su historia. De ahí que tanto la responsabilidad como de la libertad posean un papel imperativo en este proceso. La célebre obra titulada Ética (1968), es el resultado de este periodo. Dentro de estas inquietudes se publicó su obra Del socialismo científico al socialismo utópico (1971), destacando el sentido de la apertura hacia el futuro por construir y la función orientadora de las utopías en la marcha hacia una nueva humanidad.

A partir de estas lecturas no dogmáticas y críticas de Marx, nuestro autor descubrió una de las categorías que, a su juicio, representa de manera esencial el pensamiento filosófico, económico y político del fundador del marxismo. La categoría es la praxis; entendida como actividad, trabajo, transformación (Veränderung), no solamente de lo real, sino del mismo ser humano. En la madurez de su vida intelectual, el desarrollo de estas ideas se reflejaría en la publicación tan reconocida del exiliado español, a saber: Filosofía de la praxis (1967). El fin de la obra mencionada, en la opinión del autor, es “determinar la naturaleza y función de los distintos aspectos del marxismo como crítica, proyecto de emancipación, conocimiento y vinculación con la práctica”.

En todas sus etapas, el filósofo Adolfo Sánchez Vázquez expresa el acercamiento libre y renovador sobre pensamiento de Karl Marx y del marxismo en general. También ha manifestado el valor fundamental del filosofar como pensamiento vivo, riguroso, crítico y transformador del mundo. Actitud comprometida que lo ha acompañado de forma infatigable en sus escritos así como en su vida. Trayectoria encaminada hacia un nuevo socialismo. Declara Sánchez Vázquez sobre el tema en una entrevista: “muchas verdades se han venido a tierra; ciertos objetivos no han resistido el contraste con la realidad y algunas esperanzas se han desvanecido. Y, sin embargo, hoy estoy más convencido que nunca de que el socialismo –vinculado con esas verdades y con esos objetivos y esperanzas– sigue siendo una alternativa necesaria, deseable y posible”.

Entre otros importantes premios y distinciones, podemos citar: el nombramiento como doctor honoris causa por las universidades de Puebla, Nuevo León, Guadalajara, Cádiz, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia de Madrid, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Buenos Aires, y La Habana. Ha recibido la Gran Cruz de Alfonso X El Sabio, el Premio Universidad Nacional en el área de investigación en Humanidades de la UNAM, el Premio Nacional de Ciencias y Artes, Historia, Filosofía y Ciencias Sociales, el Premio María Zambrano de la Junta de Andalucía y la Gran Cruz de la Orden del Mérito Civil, otorgada por el gobierno de España.

RL

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