Álvaro Uribe: el oficio del escritor

La literatura es conflicto. Toda obra narrativa se sustenta en un conflicto que altera el orden preexistente, que se enreda y que, a final de cuentas, se resuelve, o no. Y la primera fuente de conflicto, por temporalidad y por cercanía, necesariamente es la familia. Casi todas las relaciones familiares tienen su grado de rispidez, quizás porque uno no escoge a sus padres o hermanos y porque desde el comienzo mismo de todo nos vemos obligados a convivir, disfrutar y padecer.

Al ser la fuente más inmediata y, tal vez, obvia de conflicto, muchas veces los escritores lo pasan por alto y prefieren buscar el “gran tema”, lo “trascendental”, cuando las tramas más interesantes las podemos encontrar al alcance de la mano.

En El taller del tiempo (2003), Álvaro Uribe (Ciudad de México, 1953) detecta el conflicto primigenio: la lucha eterna entre padre e hijo. Si lo observa uno bien, quienes siempre están en competencia son los hijos varones con su padre, nunca con su madre, y ésta, rara vez, con sus hijas mujeres.

Quizá sea la cultura patriarcal, quizás el vil machismo, pero el padre siempre está en conflicto con el hijo varón. Por la dominancia dentro de la familia, por la aprobación que busca el vástago, por la motivación que quiere implementar el progenitor, por la necesidad de generar y tener una personalidad autónoma y no seguir simplemente la inercia. El caso es que siempre, casi siempre, luchan y están en conflicto, y es una batalla que a todos nos marca, determinando muchos patrones de conducta.

Desde el conflicto más básico, construye una trama en la que Miguel Segundo lucha por desmarcarse de su padre, Miguel Primero, pero con esa batalla en el inconsciente, impone un régimen del terror para obligar a su propio hijo, Miguel Tercero, a que le demuestre que es merecedor del nombre y digno sucesor en la línea patriarcal. A partir de la relación personal originaria, teje una historia compleja que desde el mero principio atrapa al lector, pues poco a poco se va intensificando el seductor aroma de la tragedia. Arranca desde los orígenes y llega a lo extraordinario.

Este mismo patrón sigue la estructura de la novela: a partir de las reglas fundamentales de la narrativa, construye un andamiaje muy elaborado en el que diferentes personajes, con distintas voces y desde su propio punto de vista, cuentan su parte de la historia, para que al final, el lector la conozca completa, de principio a fin. Uribe respeta los principios básicos de la técnica, construye escenas que funcionan y se suceden tersamente una a otra. En cada secuencia va generando expectativas mediante la dosificación de la información, que al transcurrir de las páginas cumple o defrauda, pero no deja cabos sueltos: tiene un planteamiento, desarrollo, clímax y desenlace bien definidos, con sus puntos de giro bien identificados. Entre cada punto de giro introduce sucesos que impulsan la trama al abrir posibilidades de entre las cuales, los personajes tienen que elegir. Vamos, los fundamentos mismos de la narrativa están ahí.

Sin embargo, no sólo están ahí, están puestos en función de la trama, manejados con oficio, con dominio de las herramientas del orfebre. Algunos ejemplos:

El narrador –los diversos narradores– no genera sobresaltos en la lectura, se limita a contar lo que pasa. No incurre en la tentación de explicar las cosas, deja que el lector haga sus deducciones y arme el rompecabezas por su cuenta. La prosa es limpia y precisa, no hay palabras que sobren, pero tampoco se echan de menos cuando la intensidad de la historia lo requiere. El estilo acompaña y lubrica la lectura, no la dificulta, como en muchos casos de autores que quieren innovar, pero sin un sustento dramático. Estamos pues ante un escritor con el oficio bien entrenado.

Una vez dominados los aspectos técnicos, el autor siente la seguridad de diseñar una estructura narrativa compleja. Con las bases bien puestas, ejecuta un salto mortal en la temporalidad de la narración. No hay narrador único que cuente de principio a fin la saga de los Migueles, sino que en cada capítulo cambia la voz, el tono, la perspectiva, la incidencia en el devenir de los hechos, la forma de contar.

Una charla, una carta, un discurso de ultratumba. Unos en el presente, otros en el futuro inmediato, unos más varios años después, uno desde la eternidad y alguno atemporal. Uribe no le permite al lector llevarse por la inercia, pues cuando este se ha familiarizado con el devenir de la lectura, termina el capítulo y cambia la clave.

Con todo, lo realmente interesante en la construcción de la novela es que cada narrador aporta información que los demás ignoran, al tiempo que desconoce lo que otros sí saben. Así, cada uno va poniendo retazos que al final constituyen el vestido completo.

Sin embargo, la forma no es lo único relevante. El conflicto entre los Migueles desemboca en preguntas, tal vez dirigidas a la imaginación, pero que afectan el centro mismo de las personas. ¿Si pudieras regresar en el tiempo, qué cambiarías de tu vida? ¿Qué le pedirías al diablo a cambio de tu alma? La respuesta a estas dos preguntas dan movimiento al capítulo final, en el que Miguel Segundo y el Diablo negocian las condiciones de su contrato. El primero pide regresar a la media hora en que pudo cambiar el destino trágico de su familia –pero sabe, el lector sabe– que para eso debe regresar casi veinte años y quitarse de encima la carga psicológica de la lucha con su padre, Miguel Primero. Todo esto se sucede en una última escena de altísima intensidad, en la que se concentran y se agitan todos los elementos dramáticos que se esparcieron a lo largo de las páginas y que ahora resuenan, que ahora se agitan dentro de la coctelera. El resultado de ello, es una tragedia cuyo ciclo parece cerrarse en un círculo perfecto que no tiene ni principio ni fin, y que se repite una y otra vez, eternamente.

La forma y el fondo se conjugan y complementan. Aunque hay algunos detalles, en esta ocasión vale la pena ser permisivo. El taller del tiempo es un verdadero drama familiar que afecta al lector, contado con todo el oficio del sastre. En una reseña en Letras Libres, publicada en septiembre de 2003, Rafael Lemus concluye que las costuras quedan a la vista. Yo difiero, creo que las costuras están tan bien zurcidas que no se notan, no sobresaltan y son armónicas. Puro y duro oficio de buen escritor, lo cual es cada vez más difícil de encontrar.

RMM/PR

482 Comments

  1. Hi there! I know this is kinda off topic however , I’d figured I’d ask.
    Would you be interested in trading links
    or maybe guest writing a blog post or vice-versa? My site covers a lot of the same topics as yours and I think
    we could greatly benefit from each other. If you are
    interested feel free to send me an email.
    I look forward to hearing from you! Great blog by the way!

  2. As the admin of this site is working, no hesitation very rapidly it will be well-known, due to its quality contents.

  3. I like what you guys are usually up too. This type of clever
    work and exposure! Keep up the good works guys I’ve you guys to
    blogroll.

  4. It is the best time to make some plans for the future and it is time
    to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I wish to suggest you few
    interesting things or tips. Maybe you could write next articles referring to this article.
    I wish to read even more things about it!

  5. I get pleasure from, lead to I found just what I was looking for.
    You have ended my 4 day lengthy hunt! God Bless you man. Have a great day.
    Bye

  6. We are a group of volunteers and opening a new scheme in our community.

    Your website provided us with valuable info to work on. You have done
    a formidable job and our whole community will be grateful to you.

  7. Way cool! Some very valid points! I appreciate you penning this write-up and also the rest of the site is extremely good.

  8. You are so interesting! I do not think I have read a single thing like this before.
    So great to find another person with some unique thoughts on this issue.
    Really.. thank you for starting this up. This web site is one thing that is required
    on the web, someone with a bit of originality!

  9. All sorts of investments include certain risks.

  10. I am not sure where you are getting your information, but good topic.
    I needs to spend some time learning more or understanding more.
    Thanks for magnificent information I was looking for this information for my mission.

  11. Excellent post. Keep writing such kind of information on your blog.

    Im really impressed by your site.
    Hi there, You have done an excellent job. I will definitely digg it and personally
    suggest to my friends. I am sure they’ll be benefited from this site.

  12. Appreciate this post. Will try it out.

  13. I’m gone to say to my little brother, that he should also pay a visit
    this blog on regular basis to take updated from latest reports.

  14. Wonderful beat ! I would like to apprentice even as you amend your web site, how could i subscribe for a weblog website?
    The account helped me a appropriate deal. I had been a little bit
    familiar of this your broadcast offered shiny transparent idea

  15. Unquestionably believe that which you said. Your favorite justification appeared to be on the net the
    easiest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I certainly get irked while people think about worries that they
    just don’t know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top and defined out the whole thing without having side effect ,
    people could take a signal. Will probably be back to get more.
    Thanks

  16. Now I am ready to do my breakfast, when having my breakfast coming yet again to read other news.

  17. Remarkable! Its actually amazing post, I have got much clear idea concerning from this piece of writing.

  18. It is truly a great and useful piece of info.
    I’m satisfied that you just shared this useful information with us.

    Please stay us up to date like this. Thanks for sharing.

  19. Hey just wanted to give you a quick heads up.
    The text in your post seem to be running off the screen in Opera.
    I’m not sure if this is a formatting issue or something to do with internet browser compatibility but I figured I’d post to let you know.
    The design look great though! Hope you get the problem solved soon. Thanks

  20. If you want to obtain a good deal from this paragraph then you have to apply such strategies to your won webpage.

  21. Hi there! This is kind of off topic but I need some advice from an established blog.
    Is it very hard to set up your own blog? I’m not very techincal
    but I can figure things out pretty fast. I’m thinking about creating my own but I’m not sure where
    to start. Do you have any points or suggestions?

    Thanks

  22. Thanks very interesting blog!

  23. For most recent information you have to pay a quick visit world
    wide web and on world-wide-web I found this site as a most excellent website
    for most up-to-date updates.

  24. Your style is so unique compared to other folks I have read stuff from.
    Thanks for posting when you have the opportunity, Guess I’ll just bookmark
    this page.

  25. Hello There. I found your blog using msn. This is an extremely well written article.
    I’ll be sure to bookmark it and come back to read more
    of your useful info. Thanks for the post. I will definitely return.

  26. It’s going to be ending of mine day, however
    before finish I am reading this enormous paragraph to improve my experience.

  27. Heya i’m for the primary time here. I came across this board and I to find It really helpful & it
    helped me out much. I am hoping to give one thing again and aid
    others like you helped me.

  28. I was excited to uncover this site. I wanted to thank
    you for ones time just for this wonderful read!! I definitely loved every bit of it and i also
    have you book marked to see new stuff in your website.

  29. I love what you guys are up too. This type of clever work and coverage!
    Keep up the terrific works guys I’ve included you guys to my own blogroll.

  30. Please let me know if you’re looking for a article writer for
    your site. You have some really great articles and I think
    I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load
    off, I’d love to write some content for your blog in exchange
    for a link back to mine. Please send me an e-mail if interested.

    Cheers!

  31. When someone writes an article he/she keeps
    the thought of a user in his/her brain that how a user can be aware of it.
    So that’s why this piece of writing is amazing. Thanks!

  32. Today, I went to the beach with my kids. I found a sea
    shell and gave it to my 4 year old daughter and said “You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear.” She placed the shell
    to her ear and screamed. There was a hermit crab inside and it pinched her ear.
    She never wants to go back! LoL I know this is totally off
    topic but I had to tell someone!

  33. Since the admin of this website is working, no question very shortly it will be
    famous, due to its quality contents.

  34. I’m not sure exactly why but this website is loading
    incredibly slow for me. Is anyone else having this issue or is it a problem on my
    end? I’ll check back later on and see if the problem still exists.

  35. I read this article fully about the comparison of
    newest and preceding technologies, it’s remarkable article.

  36. Asking questions are really fastidious thing if you are not
    understanding something entirely, except this paragraph presents nice understanding even.

  37. Thanks for any other fantastic article. Where else may just anybody get that kind of info in such
    a perfect method of writing? I have a presentation next week, and I’m on the search for such information.

  38. In fact when someone doesn’t know afterward its up to other people that they will help, so here it
    occurs.

  39. Useful information. Fortunate me I discovered your web site by accident, and I’m
    surprised why this accident didn’t happened earlier! I bookmarked it.

  40. I do accept as true with all the ideas you have offered in your post.
    They’re very convincing and will definitely work. Still,
    the posts are very brief for starters. Could you please extend them a bit from subsequent time?
    Thank you for the post.

  41. Hello, I do believe your blog could possibly be having browser compatibility issues.
    Whenever I take a look at your website in Safari, it
    looks fine however, when opening in IE, it’s
    got some overlapping issues. I just wanted to provide you with a quick heads up!
    Aside from that, fantastic blog!

  42. Great post. I will be facing some of these issues as well..

  43. It’s the best time to make some plans for the future and it is time to
    be happy. I have read this post and if I could I
    desire to suggest you few interesting things or tips.
    Perhaps you could write next articles referring to this article.
    I want to read even more things about it!

  44. You really make it appear really easy together with your presentation but I to find this matter to be really something that I
    feel I’d never understand. It seems too complicated and very vast for me.
    I’m taking a look forward for your subsequent submit, I will try to get the hold of it!

  45. I like what you guys are up too. This type of clever work and reporting!
    Keep up the very good works guys I’ve added you
    guys to my own blogroll.

  46. I go to see each day some blogs and blogs to read articles or reviews, however this
    webpage presents feature based content.

  47. Wow that was unusual. I just wrote an extremely long comment but after I
    clicked submit my comment didn’t show up. Grrrr… well I’m not writing all that over again. Anyway,
    just wanted to say superb blog!

  48. Now it is time to decide your particular investments.

  49. I needed to thank you for this good read!! I certainly loved every bit of it.
    I have you book-marked to check out new things you post…

  50. At this time I am going to do my breakfast, later than having my breakfast coming yet again to read further news.

  51. Hey! I know this is kinda off topic however , I’d
    figured I’d ask. Would you be interested in exchanging
    links or maybe guest writing a blog post or vice-versa?
    My site covers a lot of the same subjects as yours and I feel
    we could greatly benefit from each other.
    If you might be interested feel free to send me an email.
    I look forward to hearing from you! Awesome blog
    by the way!

  52. This design is incredible! You most certainly know how to keep a reader amused.
    Between your wit and your videos, I was almost moved to start my own blog (well,
    almost…HaHa!) Great job. I really enjoyed what you had to say, and more than that, how you presented
    it. Too cool!

  53. I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did you make this website yourself or did you
    hire someone to do it for you? Plz respond as I’m looking to create my own blog and
    would like to know where u got this from. appreciate it

  54. I don’t know if it’s just me or if everybody else experiencing issues with your website.
    It seems like some of the written text within your content are running off the
    screen. Can someone else please comment and let
    me know if this is happening to them as well? This may be a problem with my internet browser
    because I’ve had this happen previously. Kudos

  55. Hello, constantly i used to check website posts here early in the daylight, because i enjoy to gain knowledge of more
    and more.

  56. I don’t know if it’s just me or if everyone else
    encountering issues with your site. It looks like some of the written text in your content are running off the screen. Can someone
    else please comment and let me know if this is happening to them as well?
    This could be a problem with my internet browser because
    I’ve had this happen previously. Thank you

  57. Whoa! This blog looks exactly like my old one! It’s on a completely different topic
    but it has pretty much the same page layout and design. Excellent
    choice of colors!

  58. I just want to mention I’m very new to weblog and really savored this web-site. Almost certainly I’m likely to bookmark your site . You certainly come with excellent posts. Cheers for sharing with us your webpage.

  59. Hmm is anyone else experiencing problems with the pictures on this
    blog loading? I’m trying to determine if its a problem on my end or if it’s the blog.
    Any feed-back would be greatly appreciated.

  60. I like the valuable info you provide to your articles.
    I’ll bookmark your weblog and take a look at again here regularly.
    I am slightly certain I’ll learn many new stuff right right here!
    Good luck for the next!

  61. Hmm is anyone else experiencing problems with the pictures on this blog loading?
    I’m trying to find out if its a problem on my end or if it’s the blog.

    Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated.

  62. Contemplate investments that supply immediate annuities.

  63. Monetary advisors enterprise is people business.

  64. Top-notch post it is surely. My friend has been awaiting for this content.

  65. Hiya, I am really glad I’ve found this information. Nowadays bloggers publish just about gossips and net and this is actually annoying. A good web site with interesting content, this is what I need. Thanks for keeping this site, I’ll be visiting it. Do you do newsletters? Can’t find it.

  66. Hey! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any problems
    with hackers? My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing months of hard
    work due to no data backup. Do you have any methods to protect against hackers?

  67. We stumbled over here from a different web page and
    thought I may as well check things out. I like what I
    see so i am just following you. Look forward to looking over your
    web page for a second time.

  68. Thank you a bunch for sharing this with all of us you really know
    what you are talking approximately! Bookmarked.
    Kindly also visit my web site =). We could have a link change agreement between us

  69. You ought to take part in a contest for one of the
    most useful websites on the net. I will recommend this
    website!

  70. I think the admin of this site is genuinely working hard
    in support of his website, because here every data is quality based data.

  71. All sorts of investments come with sure dangers.

  72. It’s very simple to find out any topic on web as compared
    to books, as I found this article at this site.

  73. I loved as much as you will receive carried out right here.
    The sketch is tasteful, your authored subject matter stylish.
    nonetheless, you command get got an impatience over that you wish be delivering the following.
    unwell unquestionably come more formerly again since exactly the same nearly a lot often inside case you shield this increase.

  74. Your blog is amazing dude. i love to visit it everyday. very nice layout and content . 

  75. Hello friends, its enormous article regarding cultureand
    entirely defined, keep it up all the time.

  76. Its such as you learn my mind! You appear to grasp a lot approximately this, like you wrote the book in it or
    something. I believe that you could do with a few p.c.
    to power the message home a little bit, however instead of that, that is magnificent blog.
    A great read. I’ll certainly be back.

  77. Wow that was strange. I just wrote an extremely long comment but after I clicked submit my comment didn’t appear.
    Grrrr… well I’m not writing all that over again. Anyways, just wanted to say fantastic blog!

  78. I think the admin of this site is actually working hard in support of his web page,
    for the reason that here every data is quality based material.

  79. Thank you for the good writeup. It in fact was a amusement account it.
    Look advanced to more added agreeable from you!
    However, how could we communicate?

  80. Investors do pay direct and indirect costs.

  81. Schwab Intelligent Portfolios invests in Schwab ETFs.

Leave a Reply

Tu dirección de correo electrónico no será publicada. Los campos obligatorios están marcados con *

*