“Atempa —sueños a la orilla del río—” [FICM 2013]

Tino en “Atempa —sueños a la orilla del río—” (2013), Edson Jair Caballero Trujillo


Morelia, Mich.- “Atempa es un país en el Istmo. El Istmo es un país dentro de Oaxaca. Oaxaca es un estado aparte en México”, con más o menos precisión, esta es una frase que se me grabó en la mente después de la proyección de Atempa —sueños a la orilla del río— (México, 2013), del director Edson Jair Caballero Trujillo.

Este es un documental guerrilla; así lo calificó su creador, quien ha trabajado en zonas de conflicto en Oaxaca. Y un documental de este tipo no es sino un producto que se hace en las calles, lidiando con situaciones escabrosas, con temas que el mainstream no quiere tratar.

Con una musicalización que ayuda a crear una atmósfera distante y cercana al mismo tiempo, pero especialmente fúnebre, Atempa es un proyecto que tardó siete años en concluirse. Música del Istmo de Tehuantepec. Un dolor profundo, y nombres por el estilo tienen las canciones zapotecas que inundan las calles, y el documental.

“Cuando sea grande quiero ser reina de las gacelas”, dice Tino: un muchacho que es el personaje principal del cortometraje. Y quien a lo largo de los 86 minutos de duración, vemos, como por arte de magia, pasar de niño a adolescente. Sin perder nunca su sonrisa franca. La más digna de todas las sonrisas que encontré en el festival.

Entonces San Blas Atempa se vuelve el escenario, a la orilla del rio, de los avatares de Tino. Un niño muxe que quiere ser la reina de las gacelas. Y que al principio del filme asegura que lo conseguirá. Adelantamos que, en efecto, lo logra. Pero no a costa de barios desatinos y desaires. Pues, a diferencia de lo que se cree, los muxes sufren discriminación y violencia.

Pero también tienen un rol importante en la sociedad. Las canciones populares hablan de ellos, “desde que Adán se equivocó se torció la tierra, nacieron un montón de haraganes, muxes y marimachas”. Las familias quisieran tener un muxe entre sus filas, pues se dice que son muy hábiles en las labores del hogar. Más que las propias mujeres.

Una pregunta salta de la pantalla. ¿Cuántas maneras de ser mujer hay? Muchas. Ser mujer muxe es una de ellas.

El Istmo es un lugar de fuertes conflictos sociales. Y esto también lo narra el documental. La vida junto al rio, bajo las montañas y las nubes se retrata con la cámara. Aunque a veces, por esto mismo, el espectador puede perder el hilo. Varias historias se confunden. Pero la que más atrae por ser que más alma tiene es la de Tino. El niño muxe.

“El muxe tiene más gracia. Es bueno que haya uno en casa”, comenta un hombre que no tiene la fortuna de tener un hijo, o sobrino muxe en su familia. Así continua la transformación de Tino. En medio del retrato de un pueblo que bulle y que reclama justicia.

Al espectador le bastaría sólo una historia. Pero la intención del director es crear un documental con unidad. Que totalice la visión de Atempa. De su gente y sus problemas: agrarios, sociales, llámense como sea.

| RMM | GT | @Seliztli |


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