Cesare deve morire

Fotograma, “Cesare deve morire” | Paolo y Vittorio Taviani

Parte de la edición número 54 de la Muestra Internacional de Cine de la Cineteca Nacional, César debe morir se adentra al espectador a la vida dentro de uno de los penales de máxima seguridad en Italia.

Ahí, los convictos purgan sus penas por varios ilícitos. Asesinos, narcotraficantes, y violadores, comparten celdas y el mismo recinto. Los directores —Paolo y Vittorio Taviani— arrojan al cinéfilo a la cárcel; sin embargo, este lugar ya no es un presidio sino la sede de la obra maestra de Shakespeare: Julio Cesar.

Propuesta fresca, la cinta oscila entre la ficción y una especie de documental dramatizado. Los reclusos pierden su identidad y se transforman en Bruto y César, personajes centrales en la tragedia escrita a finales del siglo XVII. El ensayo se convierte en la vida de los actores, su único objetivo es lograr transmitir la esencia del personaje al espectador. De esta forma los pasillos del reclusorio se convierten en los pasillos de la Roma antigua, el patíbulo en la basílica donde se discutía sobre la política del imperio. Así, a partir del arte, los presos devienen la prisión en teatro.

La imagen, cuidada, resulta minimalista. Las tomas de los patricios romanos muestran tensión en la cara —el pliegue entre el rostro y el cuello—, trasmitiendo una sensación de lucha, de conversión. Mientras ensayan, todo se muestra en tonalidades blanco y negro. Resalta esto la tristeza, la amargura de la vida de alguien que ha sido privado de uno de los mayores bienes de la humanidad: su libertad. Cuando finalmente llega el día de la puesta en escena, de la transfiguración —aunque sea por un par de horas— el rostro se ruboriza, la sangre y el color corren nuevamente por sus rostros haciendo que sus espíritus se inflamen, y ya no sean parte de la “escoria de la sociedad”, sino el magnánimo César o el pasional Bruto.

¿Realmente estas personas son inhumanas? Quizá esa sea la pregunta que lanzan los directores al público. El monstruo siempre es el otro, y muchas veces nos olvidamos que esas personas sometidas al poder son seres humanos. Capaces de sentir, de soñar, de vivir. El ojo de la cámara captura cómo sus rostros se apasionan al recordar a sus hijos, más allá del frío concreto del penal. El arte se vuelve esa arma empuñada por poetas, dramaturgos, cineastas, que permite al hombre volar por encima de sus limitaciones. La metamorfosis alcanza su punto más alto en el espejo que representa la obra de Shakespeare cuando Bruto prefiere la muerte a una vida sin libertad.

Con un cierre excepcional —y una última frase desgarradora— Cesare deve morire se despide de su auditorio dejándolo con ganas de volver a ese foro artístico. Sublime la forma en la cual se desarrolla la historia, los directores logran su cometido: hacer sentir al espectador, obligarlo a repensar sobre el papel que juega el arte en la vida del hombre.

| RMM | GZB |

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