Color, trazos en el tiempo: Edvard Munch, pintor de la angustia

Edvard Munch, 1895. Óleo / lienzo 90 x 120.5 cm Colección Ramus meyer, bergen

Edvard Munch, 1895. Óleo / lienzo 90 x 120.5 cm Colección Ramus meyer, bergen

ENRIQUE RAMÍREZ G. |

“Munch había introducido ya esa violencia del terror en sus líneas, pero es infinitamente más ‘naturaleza’ que kokoshka; así, así ha logrado desarmar ‘en pintura’ el antagonismo entre lo que preserva y lo que destruye, siempre en el marco del acontecer espacial”.

José María Rilke.

Edvard Munch nació el 12 de diciembre 1863 en Löten, Noruega. Fue un artista de los más influyentes del siglo XX. Se le ha comparado con Cézanne u otros tantos. Munch fue uno de los iniciadores del expresionismo alemán. Su obra y composición son rigurosas. Más allá de que se piense que es simple, Munch une lo apolíneo y lo dionisíaco. Podríamos decir que en sus cuadros está lo que todos presentimos: lo universal, como las novelas de Dostoievski, con actores de un drama supremo que hablan del humano.

En muchos de sus cuadros puedes entender la angustia de la muerte que lo persigue desde sus inicios. No sé hasta qué punto la vivencia de un artista y su obra lleguen a confundirse, a ser uno, a interceptarse y ser indiscernibles, pero llegando a algo mucho más profundo, la muerte de su madre, su hermana y su padre a temprana edad, fueron una gran influencia para su obra.

Veamos  la pintura de arriba: Junto al lecho de muerte. 

En esta pintura Munch usa como materiales el óleo sobre lienzo. La paleta está compuesta por colores térreos. Como podemos observar, en la cama hay una persona fallecida que es el  eje principal del cuadro, la que nos da en parte el sentido de profundidad por medio de horizontales. En la mayoría de la obra los colores son planos. El fondo (la pared) nos da  indicios de luz, proporcionándonos por medio de intensidad y valor un sentido de alumbramiento que dan las velas. A su costado, las cinco personas escalonadas  también nos administran hondura, unida con el negro trágico que se fusiona con la sombra. Eso en cuanto a los elementos formales.

Sigamos adentrándonos en el cuadro. Las sombras podrían ser la misma muerte que sigue acechando a todos los presentes, los personajes sufren. En occidente, donde el individuo ha ido conquistando durante ciclos su individualidad, se tiende a ver a la muerte de una forma en la que deja de existir ese ser, aunque el cristianismo sostenga que hay un más allá de la vida. Llorar por ése que también podríamos ser nosotros mismos. Somos esos personajes que observan al fallecido. Junto al lecho de muerte es un cuadro donde el cadáver no tiene rostro, invita al espectador y a todos en la escena a encarnarse. Lo mismo a un anciano que siente próximo a su último suspiro, que a una madre con los ojos entumecidos de tristeza, sin saber cómo reaccionar ante lo místico.

En muchos de los cuadros de Munch, como en Atardecer en el paseo Karl Johann, Madre muerta con niña, Los solitarios, entre otros, captamos la angustia de verse ante un ataúd, o los huesos que van acumulándose en la tierra. El artista parece decir: para descargar la impotencia ante el no-ser, sólo tengo el lienzo delante de mí. Cada uno de sus personajes en su pintura llega a tener una infinita angustia y tristeza de saberse tan pequeño. Entendiendo que todo es finito, fantasmas y recuerdos quedan inscritos en una tela: color para la posteridad.

RMM|ERG|

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