De jade y obsidiana. Magna exposición sobre Teotihuacán en Roma

teotihuacanLa exhibición más grande dedicada a la cultura Teotihuacana arribó al Palacio de Exposiciones en Roma, una de las principales sedes artísticas en Italia y Europa.

Compuesta por 450 piezas, la muestra Teotihuacán. Ciudad de los dioses da cuenta de ocho siglos de poderío de la que, en su tiempo, (150 a.C. – 650 d.C.) fuera la sexta ciudad más grande del mundo, alcanzando un área de 20 kilómetros cuadrados y 100 mil habitantes,  tan sólo detrás de Constantinopla y Alejandría.

La pieza principal es el Gran Jaguar de Xallas , fachada escultórica que conserva parte considerable de su policromía original. La  valoración de la reliquia fue dada por el titular del INAH, luego de referir que actualmente están en curso nuevas excavaciones en la Zona Arqueológica de Teotihuacán, donde se han descubierto túneles y depósitos de ofrendas prehispánicas.

La escalinata del Palacio fue  transformada por cabezas de serpientes emplumadas como si se tratase de un auténtico centro ceremonial prehispánico. Después de que la muestra ha visitado Paris, Zúrich y Berlín, algunos asistentes  opinaron que este montaje es el más elegante y espectacular, ya que el espacio convive a la perfección con el contenido.

De las exploraciones del Proyecto Pirámide de la Luna – realizadas entre 1998 y 2004- se muestran objetos como figurillas, orejeras, pendientes y cuentas esféricas que forman parte de ofrendas asociadas a la consagración de las diferentes etapas constructivas.

Otras piezas que destacan son un vaso trípode con entramado de flores de cuatro pétalos, símbolo característico del arte teotihuacano; una olla multicolor con la representación del dios de la tormenta; un collar proveniente de la Pirámide de la Serpiente Emplumada; el Brasero del Quetzalpapálotl; y una trompeta de caracol pintada.

Las piezas proceden de los museos Nacional de Antropología, de Sitio de Teotihuacan, Diego Rivera Anahuacalli, Templo Mayor, Amparo (Puebla), de Historia Mexicana (Monterrey), de Antropología de la Universidad Veracruzana, regionales de Michoacán y de Yucatán, y Fuerte de San Miguel (Campeche); e instituciones como la Fundación Televisa y el Instituto Mexiquense de Cultura.

Pese a la meticulosidad que las instiuciones responsables aseveran haber tenido, existen errores en el montaje. Uno de ellos es la incorrecta iluminación en las vitrinas, provocando que se refleje la luz y  que, por tanto,  se dificulte la visión; así como la inadecuada repartición espacial de las obras, de modo que se relegan piezas importantes respecto de las restantes.

Punto también cuestionable es la proyección de un video sobre Teotihuacán, realizado por Roberto Giacobbo, criticado conductor de televisión que difunde ideas sobre ovnis y el apocalipsis del 2012. El desconcierto al verlo y la petición de una explicación al personal se cerró en que la muestra salió muy económica y “las cuentas tienen que cuadrar”.

La muestra es producto de un siglo de exploraciones de un sitio, declarado Patrimonio Mundial en 1987. A través de 450 obras dispuestas en un recorrido museográfico, el público italiano tiene la oportunidad de conocer el urbanismo y arquitectura que caracterizó a esta antigua metrópoli, poderosa duarnte más de ocho siglos.

Teotihuacán, Ciudad de los Dioses se presentará hasta febrero de 2011.

AM/RL

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