De la realidad como patología

Catherine Deneuve en “Belle de Jour”, 1967

Si Emma Bovary hubiese vivido durante el siglo XX, su vida no habría distado mucho de la de Séverine, el personaje principal de Belle de jour (1967): ambas casadas con un médico de cierto prestigio, ambas con altas aspiraciones y un deseo irrefrenable por vivir, ambas pertenecientes a una sociedad burguesa cuya doble moralidad les impide la consumación de esa fantasía a la que han sido confinadas por su propio gusto como al envés de un velo, tan necesario y asfixiante cuanto que no es posible despojarse de él.

El encuentro en el prostíbulo de Séverine con el amigo de su esposo, el mismo que le ha dado la dirección para que satisfaga su curiosidad, la cimbra en tanto pone en peligro la subsistencia del velo al reunir con su presencia las dos realidades que se llaman o se superponen o son antípodas una de la otra, pero que no pueden llegar a ser una: la única forma en que podrían unirse sería por medio de la rasgadura; y entonces nos damos cuenta que el dilema, además de ser ético, acaba por ingresar en otra dimensión.

Luis Buñuel, al igual que Alfred Hitchcock, tan dado a fundir los límites de la realidad de la realidad y la realidad de la fantasía, concluye su filme con una insinuación: entre lo deseado y lo real no existe ninguna diferencia cualitativa; esencialmente, la mirada es un elemento activo, y entre desear y llevar a cabo los deseos no hay sino una gradación entre distintas potencias que poseen una misma base: el ser.

Esta figuración es explorada por Stanley Kubrick desde el punto de vista de quien desea y desde el punto de vista de quien está a punto de consumar sus deseos en una de sus más terribles películas, Ojos bien cerrados (Eyes Wide Shut, 1999), mas no pasa desapercibido que en La ventana indiscreta (Rear Window, 1954), ahí Hitchcock habría llevado el procedimiento hasta su última frontera; el que al final de la cinta aparezca Lisa Carol, la novia del fotógrafo, hojeando una revisa en la que se lee la palabra “Himalaya”, da cuenta de la ironía y agudeza del realizador estadunidense.

Jeffries, personaje desde cuya posición se conocen los hechos, yace postrado tras haberse roto una pierna cuando fotografiaba in situ una carrera de autos. Habitar un edificio frente al que hay otro edificio, así como tener a la mano su cámara y el lente de su cámara, resultan una combinación harto eficaz para que pase día y noche sucesivos mirando la vida, simbolizada en este caso por las diversas circunstancias por las que atraviesan sus vecinos.

La mirada, cualidad por excelencia de quien toma fotografías, es amplificada por la lente de la cámara, a través de la que el personaje observa como si de una ventana se tratase. La acción de un ojo sutil al que potencia una prótesis visual, ojo perteneciente a un cuerpo con una pierna enyesada que no le permite desplazarse, exhibe la forma y la magnitud en las que divergen lo que mira y lo que es mirado: a Jeffries le es dado percatarse de lo que sucede en un apartamento frente al suyo, pero no le es dado ir hasta él.

A Lisa Carol, por el contrario, le es posible desplazarse hasta el propio sitio donde ocurren los hechos, pero no le es posible interpretarlos, darse cuenta de ellos, hacerlos visibles a su mirada. Es el fotógrafo el que la guía y le refiere lo ocurrido. Ahora bien, ¿cuál sería la diferencia entre mirar el último confín del mundo y acudir a él o traerlo aquí o hacerlo venir? La diferencia, semejante a lo que le pasa al fotógrafo con una o dos piernas rotas, es ante todo de potencia y radica en el deseo mismo que engendró dicho confín. No existe cercanía o lejanía para la mente que procesa lo que el ojo ha enfocado. ¿Son la mirada y lo deseado cosas distintas?

Alice, la mujer de Ojos bien cerrados, engendra la peste, parafraseando al poeta inglés William Blake, quien escribe que es ése el resultado para quien desea y no actúa. ¿Tendría manera de actuar? En todo caso, la mirada y la confusión, dobles en la cinta de Kubrick, llegan a desaparecer en La ventana indiscreta: Lisa cede su mirada al fotógrafo y, de tal modo, el deseo alcanza los extremos: o se convierte en un acto puro o desaparece, ambas posibilidades gracias a ella. Y a él, por supuesto.

En una misma potencia yacen las diversas bifurcaciones: de la mirada que se ve a sí misma, de la mirada ofuscada que no puede ver, de la mirada que ve lo que quiere. ¿No es entonces para quien se ha dado a la tarea de enfocar una imagen recortada del resto, que el desear es en sí el primer obstáculo para la consumación del deseo? Si así fuera, ¿cuál sería la esencia de lo que llamamos realidad, la diferencia esencial entre lo cualitativo y lo cuantitativo?

Alice desea, pero no actúa, imagina tan sólo lo que Bill trata de hacer sin llegar a la consumación en las calles de la gran ciudad. Lisa hojea una revista donde aparece el Himalaya, alegoría de la cima del mundo, mientras Jeffries, convaleciente, permanece dormido. No observamos con gran detenimiento al médico si no es por medio de Séverine, a la que vemos mirar como al horizonte y encontrar una escena que se recorta del resto: llevada a la fuerza por el campo, atada, semidesnuda, azotada y fantaseando con ser tomada por otro, sus aspiraciones no resultan tan altas como las de la señora Bovary que, por una ventana, en busca de la intensidad más fuerte, mira hacia el camino en espera de ver pasar a León, luego a Rodolfo, luego a León, luego a Rodolfo. Toda originalidad es patológica, y una patología no puede ser muy original que digamos, dice Gaston Bachelard.

Puente entre los siglos XIX y XX, la relación entre Emma Bovary y Séverine propone la continuidad del velo que ––allá se rompe, acá se rasga–– parece desaparecer en Ojos bien cerrados y en La ventana indiscreta, obras en las que el drama se sitúa en otro nivel de realidad, con lo cual y tras este rodeo, quizá se pueda decir, al menos momentáneamente, que lo que se ve no es el mundo ni el mundo es como se ve: acaso el mundo se vea como somos.

OAG / TRIPODOLOGÍA FELINA

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