Descubren arte rupestre en Guanajuato

Investigadores del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH), dirigidos por al arqueólogo Carlos Viramontes, hallaron al noreste de Guanajuato más de tres mil motivos pictóricos rupestres durante la cuarta temporada de investigación y registro del proyecto “Arte Rupestre en la cuenca del Río Victoria” que abarca la zona semidesértica de Querétaro y Guanajuato.

Dichas improntas están distribuidas en 40 sitios rocosos, ubicados en los municipios de Tierra Blanca, San Luis de la Paz, San Diego de la Unión, Xichú y Victoria.

En ellas se aluden a rituales de paso, curación, petición de lluvias y culto a los cerros, estás fueron elaboradas entre los siglos I y X de nuestra era por antiguas sociedades de cazadores-recolectores que ocuparon la zona.

Además, entre estas ilustraciones se descubrieron representaciones religiosas e inscripciones realizadas por comunidades otomíes durante la época colonial, así como otras realizadas por rancheros y religiosos en los siglos XIX y XX.

Estos espacios se suman a los 70 que desde la década de los 80 han sido hallados en la entidad, los cuales fueron clasificados, preliminarmente, en dos grupos.

Por un lado están los “públicos”, donde la probabilidad de que un gran número de personas participara en su creación como parte de algún ritual es muy alto pues el acceso resulta fácil al estar ubicados a los pies de montes y en los valles; por otro lado se encuentran los “privados”, en los que se cree que un número reducido de individuos hacían ceremonias debido a la dificultad para llegar a ellos pues es encuentran escondidos en cabañas y barrancas.

Un ejemplo de los sitios privados, señaló Viramontes, es el conocido como “Manitas” en la comunidad de Tierra Blanca y Cerro Gordo, en el municipio San Luis de la Paz, que corresponde a un lugar privado en el que probablemente participaban sólo los especialistas de rituales y sus aprendices, pues se ubica cerca de una cumbre montañosa de aproximadamente 3 mil 400 metros de altura.

Las figuras de este sitio aluden a representaciones de humanos, plantas y animales, algunos semejantes a seres fantásticos, así como trazos geométricos y manos en colores negro y rojo.

En contraste, la zona de Cerro Redondo es considerada un espacio público. Se trata de una pequeña elevación en medio de una planicie que fue habitada por sociedades de cazadores-recolectores.

Cabe señalar que las representaciones realizadas por cazadores-recolectores presentan característicamente tonos rojos, amarillos y negros y se utilizaron generalmente para representar figuras humanas con tocados, faldellines y escudos, así como algunos instrumentos no identificados del todo, como arcos y flechas en escenas de caza o guerra.

Carlos Viramontes destacó que además existe una gran diversidad de animales representados, en su mayoría ciervos, cánidos, aves e insectos como ciempiés y arácnidos.

De acuerdo con el arqueólogo, el acto de plasmar imágenes en la roca iba más allá de dejar huella en la memoria colectiva, puesto que para ellos los frentes rocosos utilizados al pintar eran el punto de contacto entre el mundo material y el espiritual, según se ha concluido por la iconografía en la que se releja el culto a la piedra y al cerro como entidades vivas.

Asimismo señaló que las pinturas rupestres relacionadas a la época colonial están compuestas por representaciones de cruces, capillas, altares e inscripciones con fechas, todas ellas realizadas con pigmentación blanca, propia de los pueblos otomíes que se asentaron en el semidesierto guanajuatense y queretano a partir del siglo XVI.

En lo que respecta a imágenes del siglo XIX, se observan cruces, altares y personajes pintados por rancheros, esto último se determinó por los trazos burdos y la pigmentación roja con que fueron hechos, además de que portan pantalones bombachos y sombreros propios de la época.

Mientras que del siglo XX sólo se encontraron pinturas de copas y cruces, probablemente realizadas durante la guerra cristera en la década de 1920, de acuerdo con referencias de los habitantes de la comunidad quienes comentaron que durante esa época el abrigo rocoso fue ocupado por diversos religiosos, donde estos realizaban algunos de sus ritos.

Actualmente se elabora el informe de estos sitios y la iconografía que contiene. Estos hallazgos, anunciados por el INAH la semana pasada, quedarán inscritos en la Dirección de Registro Público de Monumentos y Zonas Arqueológicas del INAH durante el febrero próximo.

RMM/EZ

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