Diálogos Literarios en la UNAM

El escritor mexicano, José Emilio Pacheco

El escritor mexicano, José Emilio Pacheco

(Mex) “La literatura tiene la capacidad de reflejar la realidad”, coincidieron  José Emilio Pacheco y Mario Vargas Llosa, durante su participación en los Diálogos Literarios, que organizó la Universidad Nacional para celebrar los Doctorados Honoris Causa con los que fueron investidos el pasado jueves 23 de septiembre.

Esta actividad se encuentró dentro del marco de los festejos por el centenario que cumple la UNAM, en donde también fueron reconocidos otros 14 intelectuales, entre ellos el fallecido escritor Carlos Monsiváis, a quien próximamente se le rendirá un homenaje luctuoso.

Durante la charla con su amigo Ignacio Solares, Pacheco sostuvo que la literatura tiene la capacidad de captar la realidad social. “No me hago pasar por profeta, no soy el pulpo Paul”, comentó al señalar la violencia que había descrito en sus libros y que ahora se hace presente en la realidad, lo cual le valió, en su momento, ser llamado pesimista y apocalíptico.

Al hablar sobre su poemario “No me preguntes cómo pasa el tiempo”, publicado en 1969, recordó la ciudad de entonces y sostuvo que era un paraíso comparada con el auténtico horror de 2010. “Una cosa es hablar poéticamente del polvo, la ceniza, la ruina y otra es verla”.

Por su parte, Vargas Llosa, quien sostuvo diálogos con Saltiel Alatriste, hizo un recorrido de su quehacer literario en el que habló del proceso de creación de sus obras Las ciudad de los perros, La casa verde, Conversación en la catedral, La tía Julia y el escribidor, Pantaleón y las visitadoras.

De esta última novela resaltó el humor, el cual no está presente en novelas anteriores. “El humor está en mi vida pero no en mi literatura, y la culpa la tiene Sartre porque en su obra no hay humor, así que sus seguidores estamos negados al humor”.

Sin embargo, expresó que cuando escribió Pantaleón y las visitadoras fue inevitable que el humor permeara  la obra por la naturaleza del tema. Aseguró que “cuando uno escribe novelas es imposible evitar la ficción; las novelas cuentas mentiras, pero mentiras muy suigéneris porque en ellas se cuentan verdades, tienen la capacidad de reflejar la realidad.”

Así mismo departió sobre los autores que lo influenciaron como Jean Paul Sartre, James Joice, John Dos Passos, William Folkner y Gustave Flaubert.

De este último reconoció la disciplina, la perseverancia, el espíritu autocrítico.  “Detrás de los grandes escritores hay disciplina, perseverancia”; es un caso muy impresionante de cómo Floubert se hizo escritor, “su caso es de los frecuentes, se insistía, se exigía de manera casi sobrehumana y llegó a construir su genio”.

Advirtió que actualmente se lee más de lo que se leía en América Latina hace 40 años y también se editan más libros que entonces. “Un joven que comienza a escribir en América Latina tiene menos dificultades hoy día para encontrar un editor y que sus libros lleguen al público que hace medio siglo”.

 “En ese entonces era imposible considerarse un escritor de éxito, ya que era muy difícil imaginar superar las fronteras de su país”. Por otro lado, expresó que los valores culturales han sufrido una profunda transformación de tal forma que “los nuevos lectores buscan una literatura que sea fundamentalmente divertida y entretenida, a diferencia de “hace medio siglo en que los lectores buscaban más una literatura que llenara los vacíos, que problematizara y aliviaran la falta de información”.

 AM/RL

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