Dios a juicio en el “Caín” de Saramago


Sólo un año después de la publicación de “El viaje del Elefante”, y como resultado de un trance intenso de cuatro meses, según su autor, “Caín” la nueva novela de José Saramago llega este año a manos de los lectores y desmiente aquellos rumores de que “El viaje del Elefante” sería su último libro.

El ya octogenario Nobel portugués nos presenta una novela llena de la ironía, el humor y la lucidez que lo caracterizan. No teme describir los actos sexuales ni oculta la voz de los deseos ni de la carne. Tras aquel camino a través de los evangelios que emprendiera en “El evangelio según Jesucristo”, esta vez se adentra, sin miramientos, en diferentes historias del antiguo testamento que entrecruza y somete al juicio de su pluma.

La novela, cuya línea conductora es la historia de Abel y Caín, transcurre en diversos escenarios bíblicos como la historia de Job, el arca de Noé, la expulsión del paraíso de Adán y Eva y la torre de Babel, entre otros. Asimismo, Saramago hace que el protagonista de la narración, Caín, interactúe con distintos personajes venerados en la tradición judeo-cristiana como Abraham y Moisés, e incluso los ángeles y el mismo Dios, a quien el escritor describe primordialmente como un viejo vestido con túnica, que porta corona y cetro y que maneja a su antojo la existencia y el sufrimiento humano.

Esto último despertó la inconformidad del episcopado portugués ante la publicación del libro, quien acusó a Saramago de “no entender las enseñanzas bíblicas”. Pero no es sólo a las historias de crueldad divina hacia lo que Saramago embate, también carga contra diversos modos de vida y de actuación de la población semita, a quien él autor llama “gente mal educada”. Pues Saramago ve en la actuación judía del antiguo testamento una complicidad peligrosa entre el Dios castigador y voluntarioso con el (auto)llamado pueblo elegido.

Esto último puede parecer controversial pues desde el holocausto cualquier enunciación de crítica sobre el pueblo judío roza el tabú y la susceptibilidad de muchos, pero Saramago hace caso omiso de dicha prohibición, mostrando que nada debe ser intocable para la literatura.

“¿Qué diablos de Dios es éste que, para enaltecer a Abel, desprecia a Caín?” El mismo Saramago esboza una respuesta en sus letras: un Dios insostenible, injustificado, sostén de fanáticos e injustos, creado por el hombre para explicar los propios actos de crueldad, en pocas palabras: un Dios culpable.

En resumen, el estilo encomiable de este escritor Nobel, y una historia que toca las profundidades de la tradición que y exige un replanteamiento de ella, hacen de “Caín” un libro que hay que leer para demoler las estructuras de poder autoritario que nos han marcado por siglos. Pues el fin de su literatura, como el mismo escritor lo ha mencionado, es propiciar el nacimiento de un mundo más justo.



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