Dios a juicio en el “Caín” de Saramago

Saramago

Sólo un año después de la publicación de “El viaje del Elefante”, y como resultado de un trance intenso de cuatro meses, según su autor, “Caín” la nueva novela de José Saramago llega este año a manos de los lectores y desmiente aquellos rumores de que “El viaje del Elefante” sería su último libro.

El ya octogenario Nobel portugués nos presenta una novela llena de la ironía, el humor y la lucidez que lo caracterizan. No teme describir los actos sexuales ni oculta la voz de los deseos ni de la carne. Tras aquel camino a través de los evangelios que emprendiera en “El evangelio según Jesucristo”, esta vez se adentra, sin miramientos, en diferentes historias del antiguo testamento que entrecruza y somete al juicio de su pluma.

La novela, cuya línea conductora es la historia de Abel y Caín, transcurre en diversos escenarios bíblicos como la historia de Job, el arca de Noé, la expulsión del paraíso de Adán y Eva y la torre de Babel, entre otros. Asimismo, Saramago hace que el protagonista de la narración, Caín, interactúe con distintos personajes venerados en la tradición judeo-cristiana como Abraham y Moisés, e incluso los ángeles y el mismo Dios, a quien el escritor describe primordialmente como un viejo vestido con túnica, que porta corona y cetro y que maneja a su antojo la existencia y el sufrimiento humano.

Esto último despertó la inconformidad del episcopado portugués ante la publicación del libro, quien acusó a Saramago de “no entender las enseñanzas bíblicas”. Pero no es sólo a las historias de crueldad divina hacia lo que Saramago embate, también carga contra diversos modos de vida y de actuación de la población semita, a quien él autor llama “gente mal educada”. Pues Saramago ve en la actuación judía del antiguo testamento una complicidad peligrosa entre el Dios castigador y voluntarioso con el (auto)llamado pueblo elegido.

Esto último puede parecer controversial pues desde el holocausto cualquier enunciación de crítica sobre el pueblo judío roza el tabú y la susceptibilidad de muchos, pero Saramago hace caso omiso de dicha prohibición, mostrando que nada debe ser intocable para la literatura.

“¿Qué diablos de Dios es éste que, para enaltecer a Abel, desprecia a Caín?” El mismo Saramago esboza una respuesta en sus letras: un Dios insostenible, injustificado, sostén de fanáticos e injustos, creado por el hombre para explicar los propios actos de crueldad, en pocas palabras: un Dios culpable.

En resumen, el estilo encomiable de este escritor Nobel, y una historia que toca las profundidades de la tradición que y exige un replanteamiento de ella, hacen de “Caín” un libro que hay que leer para demoler las estructuras de poder autoritario que nos han marcado por siglos. Pues el fin de su literatura, como el mismo escritor lo ha mencionado, es propiciar el nacimiento de un mundo más justo.

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84 Comments

  1. Si este nuevo libro de Saramago es como el del Evangelio según Jesicristo, me parece que valdría la pena leerlo…

    En lo personal, me gusta mucho como escribe, y en particular, con el Evangelio según Jesucristo, Saramago hace de un mito bíblico, acontesimientos más creíbles…

    Espero poder leerlo pronto…

  2. “El estilo encomiable de este escritor Nobel”… me brinca. José Saramago es una de las mentes más sabias de la literatura contemporánea, no me quedan muchas dudas de eso. Pero es peligroso tratar al Nobel como una distinción tan divina como el mismo Dios aquí referido. No existe premio ni mención que pueda volver a la obra personal mejor de lo que ya es, con o sin premio.
    ¿Vale más una página después de haber recibido el Nobel, o el Booker, el Goethe, el Strega o el Pullitzer? No. ¿Cuanta influencia tienen hoy Nelly Sachs, Harry Martinson ó Rudolf Eucken? Casi ninguna, se enterraron en el olvido, y los tres recibieron el Nobel. ¿Y Joyce, Proust, Kafka, Borges ó Tolstoi? Nunca lo recibieron. Y hablando nada más de la Academia Sueca, no habrá que fiarse tanto de ella ultimamente si anda por ahí premiando a plumas medianas a lo Doris Lessing, mientras Antonio Tabucchi ó W.G. Sebald esperan y hasta se mueren el la cola de las tortillas.

    Pero en fin, en cuanto a Caín… está en los primeros lugares de mi lista de deseos de fin de año. Se viene a casa muy pronto.

  3. A tan buena recomendación y buenas credenciales, creo que, sólo queda leerlo.

  4. holaaaa hace dos días vi una película por internet que se titula God on trail, literalmente Dios en juicio, es una película muy interesante que se ubica en el campo de concentración Auschwitz en el cual se levanta un juicio a dDios acusándolo de homicidio con argumentos desde diversos puntos de vista filosóficos, religiosos y científicos
    si les parece interesante el tema la pueden buscar en cinegratis.net
    saramagoooo escritor increible quiero conseguir este libro 🙂

    que esten de lo mejjor 🙂

  5. José Saramago era un desconocido para mi, hasta que llegó a mi vista su intento de juzgar a DIOS bajo el escrito de CAIN. Estoyleyendo ese libro y hasta el momento no me ha parecido nada espectacular, solo que el viejo se hizo de el motivo que una gran cantidad de gente andaba buscando para someter a juicio al creador. Es un intento manido de poner en ridiculo la Biblia. Alla él, tal vez ahora se esté arrepintiendo de su mala intención. Pobre de ël…un hombre mas en busca de trascendencia despues de su muerte. Nada espectacular en su forma de escribir…uno mas del montón…..

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