El camino de la educación mexicana: 89 años de la SEP

libro-de-texto1-300x223(Mex)Los estudios y reflexiones en torno del Bicentenario no deben enfocarse solamente –a pesar de la imparable campaña mediática pro-nacionalista que a ello incitan los medios-  en la mera  exaltación mexicana a través del endiosamiento de personajes históricos, episodios sobresalientes o vanagloria de la grandeza patriótica, actual y antigua, que se arrojan al público como pensamiento mainstream, sin juicios certeros en torno a las consecuencias y devenires de aquello por lo que se celebran tales aniversarios.

Tal campaña no considera que, ante todo, el festejo del Bicentenario y del Centenario es la afirmación de un proceso histórico que conlleva la creación, evolución, transformación, decadencia y destrucción de instituciones dentro de la realidad mexicana. Sin duda, tal postura crítica resalta en tanto los festejos renuevan la conciencia del proyecto de nación que ambos movimientos representaron, o por lo menos como punto temporal de corte.

Desde la consumación de la independencia, el proyecto de nación implicó la creación de instituciones que marcaran el eje direccional del proyecto nacionalista, a fin de lograr que México alcanzara la modernidad europea y norteamericana. Sin duda, debe reconocerse que las instituciones educativas sobresalen debido a su importancia y urgencia dentro del ideal de desarrollo y progreso planeado.

 Sin embargo, tal tarea –en el siglo XIX e inicios del XX- representaba un proyecto casi imposible: hacia 1910, la población letrada ascendía al 20% del total nacional. Pese a ello, en el periodo porfirista se realizaron algunas acciones pro-educativas considerables, entre las cuales sobresale la creación de la Secretaría de Instrucción Pública y la construcción del Palacio de Bellas Artes, primer matriz gubernamental desligada de instituciones jurídicas o eclesiásticas.

En Mayo de 1917, de acuerdo con los ideales carrancistas sobre la autonomía municipal, se suprime la Secretaría de Instrucción, pues contrariaba las aspiraciones de democratizar la administración educativa al abarcar solamente al Distrito Federal y los territorios federales, por lo que la educación básica es delegada a los ayuntamientos estatales y locales.

Sin embargo, los municipios fueron incapaces de afrontar la problemática educativa que representaba el analfabetismo masivo y la escasez de elementos necesario para satisfacer la demanda de la población por lo que, hacia 1919, la educación pública alcanzaba un punto de crisis. Con la llegada de Adolfo de la Huerta al poder, se le otorgó al Departamento Universitario la función educativa que tenía el gobierno del Distrito Federal.

Para cumplir con la democratización educativa y con los postulados del Artículo Tercero Constitucional, era ya necesaria una acción a nivel nacional, pues no bastaba con sólo declarar la educación gratuita, laica y obligatoria: se necesitaba tomar medidas para ejecutarla.

En consecuencia, se crea la Secretaría de Educación Pública, con la cual se inicia una acción educativa nacionalista a través de la cristalización del Sistema Educativo Nacional. Tal proyecto necesitó de una reforma constitucional. En tanto esto ocurría, asumió la rectoría de la Universidad Nacional el Lic. José Vasconcelos Calderón, quien se había revelado como uno de los más firmes partidarios de dar a la educación un carácter federal y que la nueva Secretaría de Educación tuviese una triada departamental:

1. Departamento Escolar, que integraba el nivel básico hasta el superior.
2. Departamento de Bibliotecas, que garantizaba materiales de lectura para apoyar la educación en todos los niveles.
3. El Departamento de Bellas Artes para coordinar las actividades artísticas complementarias de la educación.

Posteriormente, se crearon departamentos alternos para combatir problemas más específicos, tales como la educación indígena, las campañas de alfabetización, entre otras empresas. Con tales objetivos, se crea oficialmente la SEP el 25 de septiembre de 1921; en octubre 12 del mismo año Vasconcelos asume su dirección.

Desde su creación, la SEP ha tenido diversas funciones: hacer realidad la función educativa del Estado Mexicano establecida en el Artículo 3o. constitucional que garantiza una educación popular, democrática y nacionalista; implementar un sistema educativo orgánico que cumpla la función de incorporar a todos los mexicanos a la educación y la profesionalización del Magisterio como una medida que garantice la calidad educativa nacional.

Ahora, a 89 años de su nacimiento, queda una historia cimentada en ideales específicos de bienestar y pluralidad educativa; sin embargo, la historia posterior –contemporánea a las tres últimas generaciones- debe ser sometida a riguroso análisis para entender la actualidad de la educación en México, las deficiencias del sistema y los errores cometidos constantemente. ¿O acaso es beneficiosa la eliminación de materias de humanidades en los programas educativos? ¿ O la suspensión de los turnos vespertinos en secundarias, así como la reducción de presupuestos o las posturas inactivas ante la alienación educativa de las generaciones más jóvenes?

Sin duda, el Bicentenario de México debería ser momento de autocrítica, cuestionarse si se han logrado los objetivos educativos nacionales, no sólo desde el enfoque informativo de enseñar meros datos y habilidades básicas, sino desde la máxima de formar mexicanos críticos, capaces de observar la realidad y no sólo consumirla sin cuestionarse al menos el rumbo emprendido por el país.

AM/RL

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