“El enemigo” de Baudelaire y la literatura absoluta

baudelaireLa labor que la poesía ha desempeñado desde hace un par de siglos ha sido la construcción de la palabra. La poesía se reconoció a sí misma como sustancia y como sujeto de una dinámica constructora del mundo; lo hizo justamente en aquellos años en que el idealismo alemán llegaba a su resultado más prominente con Hegel como expositor del saber absoluto de todo movimiento fenomenológico. La poesía se reconoció como autoconciencia antes de la publicación de la “Fenomenología del espíritu”, lo hizo con el Monológo de Novalis, en las cartas que éste dirigió a Schlegel en mayo de 1797.

En el movimiento de esta nueva clase de poesía podemos encontrar a Baudelaire, quien es uno de sus más lúcidos exponentes: ¿cómo dilucidar el secreto de esa tarea ontológica? La literatura que tiene en el altar más sagrado a las palabras es la única que tiene la posibilidad de entregar al poeta y al lector la libertad. ¿Cuáles son las huellas de esta poesía en Baudelaire y cómo reconocerlas?

La poesía en Baudelaire se envuelve en sí misma y lo hace estableciendo relaciones sinestésicas, relaciones existenciales y relaciones inconcientes o arbitarias. Las imágenes, los olores, las metáforas se entregan a la aventura en un laberinto nunca antes explorado, hasta entonces no visitado. Baudelaire exploró estos confines con la fuerza sinéstesica que en algunos casos el opio le confirió; con la fuerza de su mujer, una gata sensual, de las esfinges y los estíos que son causa de nostalgia.

La muerte del mito se aparece en Baudelaire como imperiosa manifestación de lo sagrado, una poesía que comienza con el romanticismo alemán, que va de Novalis a Mallarmé y que pasa a la tradición francesa gracias Nerval, alcanzando algunos de sus puntos culminantes en obras como Las Flores del Mal, Aurelia y En busca del tiempo perdido.

En esta clase de poesía las palabras pierden toda fijación universal: a las palabras se las ama, se las cuida. Baudelaire fue un alquimista de las palabras, las usó a su gusto, las trató sin mesura, pero con delicadeza. Las palabras a través de las figuras poéticas – de las ya mencionadas sinestesias- cambian su significado, adquieren nuevos resortes, en cada verso, en cada estrofa, en cada poema.

De tal forma lo hacen que en Las flores del mal las palabras contienen un significado particular, que sólo cobran sentido en la obra misma. La poesía de Baudelaire fue la de el anuncio de la divinidad putrefacta, la del sacrilegio del burdel, la de la mujer amada y odiada por su belleza, una obsesión de muerte y de vida. Y para ejemplo de la poesía que se busca así misma está la de “El enemigo”. Vemos como esta poesía se levanta como un ser íntimo a sí misma:

El enemigo

“Mi juventud no fue sino un gran temporal
Atravesado, a rachas, por soles cegadores;
Hicieron tal destrozo los vientos y aguaceros
Que apenas, en mi huerto, queda un fruto en sazón.

He alcanzado el otoño total del pensamiento,
y es necesario ahora usar pala y rastrillo
Para poner a flote las anegadas tierras
Donde se abrieron huecos, inmensos como tumbas.

¿Quién sabe si los nuevos brotes en los que sueño,
Hallarán en mi suelo, yermo como una playa,
El místico alimento que les daría vigor?

-¡Oh dolor! ¡Oh dolor! Devora vida el Tiempo,
Y el oscuro enemigo que nos roe el corazón,
Crece y se fortifica con nuestra propia sangre.”

La poesía es la palabra bendita que anuncia la desgracia de los hombres y que al mismo tiempo se enuncia ella como la salida mística a la ausencia de Dios, cuya ausencia Nerval también había presentido con un crudo dolor en Aurelia y lo hace con la metáfora del sol que reaparece en Baudelaire bajo distintas formas y figuras:

“…Creí ver un sol negro en el cielo, desierto, y un globo rojo de sangre por encima de las tullerías. Me dije:—La noche eterna comienza y va a ser terrible ¿Qué sucederá cuando los hombres se percaten de que ya no hay sol?…”

Baudelaire es uno de esos hombres que se percató de que el hombre estaba en la penumbra, que la civilización estaba por entrar en la muerte del mito y que de hecho ya había estado ahí desde algunos siglos, la carroña de Baudelaire y el cadáver agusanado es el cuerpo del Dios muerto, el efecto más espantoso del pensamiento racionalista.

Los románticos alemanes y los franceses de Nerval (traductor de al francés del Fausto de Goethe) a Mallarmé tienen una idea diferente de religiosidad respecto a la doctrina judeo-cristiana, una religiosidad que va a lo pagano, a lo originario y que por eso se acerca a la concepción oriental del mundo, el propio Baudelaire viajó por el lejano oriente cuando fue joven. Todos ellos vivían en la muerte de Dios. Nerval y Baudelaire ven bien que la ausencia de Dios no es más que el inicio de la decadencia.

Esta clase de poetas no apuntaban por el camino de la ciencia o del Estado, sino el afán de conservar a la poesía como lo más bello y sacro, una religión de la autoconciencia en la palabra cuya expresión máxima es la poesía, y es el camino del poeta la única opción de la asensión mística para alacanzar la unión con lo absoluto.

En “El enemigo” esta inscrita una suerte de analogía invertida con el poema de Parménides o con la Alegoría de la caverna de Platón. Para Parménides y posteriormente para Platón, la asensión que el camino correcto del conocimiento trae es la asensión “mística”, la de la diosa o la de los eidos, en ese lugar uno vuelve a ser, a recordar, a ser uno con el uno primordial: ¿Acaso hay aspiración más noble? Para Baudelaire ese ascenso se hace en sentido contrario, no es hacia el sol al cual vio con una melancolía tortuosa; no, es más bien hacia la caverna, a las profundidades del mar a donde el temporal lo arrastra, donde en la desgracia adquiere la madurez para erigirse.

Puesto que la divinidad ha muerto alguien tiene que ocupar ese lugar y tal vez sean las flores, los nuevos brotes en los que soñó, sus flores del mal, su poesía, su palabra. El lugar místico que ocupaba Dios y el mito para Baudelaire devinó en su ser expresado a través de la poesía. Esa es la fuente de todo dolor. Por un lado se llora la muerte de Dios y por otro se ve levantarse al oscuro enemigo que pretende ocupar el lugar de Dios y de lo sagrado, del mito y de la posibilidad mística de una poesía absoluta, la poesía vio a este ente crecer y fortificarse: el Estado y la ciencia, un Weber y un Comte.

Como resultado de ese movimiento preservador de la divinidad, la poesía se encierra en sí misma, si el nomos y el polemos gobiernan lo exógeno a ella, ella misma no se mueve más que por el impulso dionisíaco que le viene como inspiración y usa lo apolíneo para mantenerse en ella. En la poesía absoluta además de la fuerza desmesurada también reina el orden, y se aprecia la técnica y la crítica literarias. A las palabras se las adora y se las ama conociéndolas, aceptando que son el mundo, porque conocer es aprender a amar.

AM

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