El expresionismo alemán grita en Bellas Artes

Ciudad de México.- “¡Pueblo, escucha: Ésta es tu lucha!” “¡Si hay imposición, habrá revolución!”, son los gritos que llegan desde las calles aledañas y retumban en las salas del Palacio. Frente a él millones de chicos desfilan convocando a la conciencia social. La gente sale a tomar las calles mientras los papeles se quedan quietos y muertos de frío en las salas de un museo. Si tan sólo esos carteles pudieran salir a acompañar a los manifestantes quizá cumplirían con su función, con su ansia de crítica, esa que han acumulado en los 50 años que no han podido transmitir mensaje alguno. Por eso, únicamente por hoy, los escucharemos fuerte y claro cual consigna en una marcha…

Guerra, prostitutas, burgueses, muertos, ortopedia son algunos de los temas que abordan las obras que desde el pasado martes 3 de julio se exponen en el Museo del Palacio de Bellas Artes.

“Expresionismo alemán: el impulso gráfico” cuenta con 249 pinturas, grabados, xilografías, dibujos y libros de la colección del Museo de Arte Moderno de Nueva York (MoMA) como parte de una exposición itinerante en la que hay obras en distintos formatos, obras de Egon Schiele, Vasily Kandinsky, Oscar Kokoschka, Max Beckmann, George Grosz, Erich Heckel, Otto Dix, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner y Emil Nolde, entre otros.

La propuesta del expresionismo es establecer fundamentos de un arte real ya no basados totalmente en una realidad objetiva o una representación referencial sino como punto de partida. Así, tomar de la realidad los estímulos necesarios para que a partir de la introspección, de la interiorización de éstos, se puedan expresar los verdaderos sentimientos y las vivencias directas.Se trata pues de una percepción que evita ser racionalizada y quedarse en lo sensorial, que en este caso implica la interacción y participación del artista en su entorno cultural y con todos los sectores sociales.

La exposición nos presenta los diferentes expresionismos, las distintas miradas y posturas en las que se situaron artistas como Kokoschka, Kandinsky, Schiele. Se habla del grupo DieBrücke (“El Puente”) en Dresde y Berlín, del grupo DerBlaue Reiter (“El Jinete Azul”) en Münich, del expresionismo austriaco y del movimiento de la nueva objetividad en el periodo entreguerras.

Un aspecto que todos estos grupos comparten —y vale la pena resaltar por el periodo en el que vivimos— es su interés político. El artista no podía estar desvinculado de su entorno. Son personas que vivieron la restructuración alemana después de las guerras francoprusianas, se enlistaron como soldados, perdieron familiares en la Primera Guerra Mundial y participaron dentro la República de Weimar. Todos esos eventos hicieron que su obra se cargara ideológicamente. Por ejemplo, que a nosotros nos siga impactando una xilografía de Grosz en donde este muestra los muertos que deja una batalla, da cuenta de su fuerza discursiva, y pone de manifiesto una fuerte crítica social con la que plasma —irónicamente— a los veteranos con sus aparatos ortopédicos recién diseñados.

Igualmente debe señalarse, por varias razones, la importancia de los grabados en madera, xilografías y litografías en el movimiento expresionista.

La primera es que con el uso de estas técnicas se lograba una mayor expresividad en las figuras tanto por los trazos como por el color. La segunda son los materiales, es decir, la madera y la piedra provocan una sensación de retorno a lo primitivo que contenía en sí mismo la posibilidad de un cambio, a diferencia del criticado enajenamiento de la modernidad industrial. Por último, el uso de estas técnicas nos habla de una producción más amplia, por lo tanto, del intento de llegar a más personas, de masificar la imagen y poder lograr un cambio de conciencia desde el arte.

Finalmente se dice que la lucha está en las calles, y sí, no hay lugar mejor para la interacción social y el intercambio de ideas, pero la gráfica expresionista se encuentra hoy atrapada en el Palacio de Bellas Artes y la única manera en la que puede revivir y salir a combatir es a través de la mirada de sus espectadores. No la abandonen. Lleven la lucha a las instituciones, la lucha a los museos… desde ahí, se puede.

RMM/RB

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