El fotógrafo mexicano Rodrigo Moya recuerda la Cuba post-revolucionaria en Milán

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*Texto en italiano y en español

Il fotografo messicano Rodrigo Moya fa rinascere la Cuba post-rivoluzionaria a Milano.

Per me la fotografia è un modo di vedere il mondo e
di pormi davanti alla vita,
di acquisire conoscenze ed esperienze
che altrimenti non acquisirei

Rodrigo Mota, Cuba mìa

(Italia)Si è conclusa il 6 aprile, la mostra “Cuba mía” del fotografo colombiano Rodrigo Moya (1935) che divenne cittadino messicano, cominciata il 4 febbraio all’Istituto Cervantes di Milano. 62 fotografie scattate tra il 15 luglio e il 10 agosto del 1964 in diversi posti della Cuba post-rivoluzionaria, in occasione del settimo anniversario dell’assalto alla Moncada. Come spiega l’autore nell’introduzione al catalogo che è stato realizzato da Edicions Casa Amèrica Catalunya “l’intenzione, puramente giornalistica e documentaristica, era quella di pubblicare un libro sul processo rivoluzionario, iniziato nell’isola dal primo gennaio 1959”.

Il libro sarebbe dovuto essere finanziato dal milionario olandese Monny de Swaan, amico di Moya, che purtroppo morirà prematuramente. Il libro doveva essere articolato in tre parti realizzate da ognuno dei tre collaboratori, tutti impegnati nella rivista messicana “Sucesos” e che viaggiarono insieme a Cuba: “i testi ameni e sempre ben scritti di Froylán Manjarrez, i fumetti acuti e divertenti di Rius” e le fotografie di Moya come supporto visivo a tutto il resto. Il titolo sarebbe dovuto essere “Cuba por tres”. Purtroppo dopo Swaan viene a mancare anche Froylán, a soli 29 anni, quindi Moya deve portare avanti da solo il suo progetto. Però sia il catalogo che la mostra sono dedicati all’inseparabile compagno di viaggio. Ruis pubblicherà i suoi fumetti da solo, nel testo didattico “Cuba para principiantes” che avrà un grande successo.

Le foto di Moya iniziano ad essere prese in seria considerazione solo nel 2005 quando il fotografo catalano Claudi Carreras gli fa visita nella sua casa di Cuernavaca per fargli un’intervista e vedere l’archivio fotografico di cui si era iniziato a parlare, soprattutto grazie al successo di alcune foto del Che. Seguono diversi incontri sempre in Messico e intanto Carreras si preprava ad organizzare la mostra a Barcellona.

Si concretizza tutto a febbraio del 2008 quando Moya riceve la proposta di Marta Nin i Camps, direttrice della Casa Amèrica Catalunya di fare una mostra con le sue foto a gennaio 2009, per ricordare “il primo mezzo secolo di vita compiuto dalla rivoluzione cubana”.

Accompagna la mostra l’importantissimo catalogo con tutte le foto, i commenti personali di Moya e quelli critici di Carerras, che definisce la sua “fotografìa essenzialmente realista, umana e impegnata” e di Bepe Baeza, che invece insiste sull’allegria degli scatti, senza “vittimismo, però molto vicina per il suo spirito all’opera di altri fotografi che hanno voluto lottare per la dignità delle vittime togliendole dall’anonimato”.

Le 62 foto esposte a Milano, che sono una selezione dell’intero catalogo, sono tutte in bianco e nero e non sono accompagnate da nessuna didascalia. È la prima volta che si sono potute vedere in Italia, ma sono state esposte già due volte in Spagna sempre grazie alla Casa Amèrica Catalunya. Le foto sono tutte spontanee, dettate da una profonda emozione e coinvolgimento di chi le ha fatte: “Mi sono fatto trasportare dalle circostanze di ogni giorno e ho captato quello che ho visto”.

Perché Moya, che aveva intrapreso studi di ingegneria, decise di fare questo viaggio a Cuba per realizzare un progetto ben preciso? È lui stesso a risponderci che di tutte le dittature che esistevano allora nel mondo, quella di Batista a Cuba era quella che più colpiva la gioventù e la sinsitra messicane per i secolari legami che univa i due paesi: “per gli scambi di artisti e intellettuali, per la risonanza storica degli esiliati politici cubani in Messico, cominciando proprio da José Martì, e di messicani a Cuba, così come la fratellanza storica”. La rivoluzione cubana dà nuove speranze a lui e a molti latinoamericani, perché dimostrava che “le dittature che seganavano la nostra storia non erano invincibili come ci faceva credere il pensiero servile o rassegnato di governatori, accademici e intellettuali del paese”.

All’ingresso della mostra a Milano un pannello con dodici scatti riprende scene di danza e musica con tamburi di festosi uomini neri e bianchi in strada. Nel resto della sala principale predominano scatti alla bandiera di Cuba e scritte come: “Viva la paz”, “Gloria a los héroes”, “Patria o muerte”.
Sempre nella sala principale ci sono otto (delle 19 totali) celebri foto del Che Guevara, che fuma, scrive, pensa, prima di partire per la Bolivia, le uniche di tutta la mostra ad essere già state pubblicate e che hanno fatto il giro del mondo. Uno degli scatti è stato battezzato dallo stesso Moya “Che meláncolico” ed è quella foto che ha iniziato a renderlo famoso nel 2000. I tre messicani durante il loro viaggio a Cuba sono riusciti a dialogare per più di due ore con l’allora Ministro delle Industrie. E naturalmente sono presenti anche foto di Fidel Castro, tre, mentre declama, ma i tre giovani intraprendenti non erano riusciti ad intervistarlo a Cuba.

L’altra saletta della mostra è completamente dedicata ai mestieri e all’arte cubani, ritraggono persone occupate in diverse attività (muratori, ballerine classiche e di cabaret, cantanti), nei lavori di campo e in fabbriche di tabacco. Molti i primi piani con espressioni felici, soddisfatte, risultato della grande vittoria.
Non mancano poi i riferimenti all’importanza dell’istruzione in frasi come: “Essere colto è l’unico modo per essere libero”, scritta sulla parete di una delle numerose scuole costruite nella regione di Minas de Frìo, in una “zona montuosa isolata, selvatica, poco popolata, dove i ribelli cominciarono nel 1957 la guerriglia” .

Gli organizzatori si sono detti molto soddisfatti della grande affluenza di pubblico accorso per visitare la mostra.
________________________________________________________________________

Moya_ChePara mí la fotografía es una forma de ver el mundo
y de posicionarme ante la vida,
de adquirir conocimientos y experiencias
que de otra manera no adquiriría

Rodrigo Mota, Cuba mía

(Italia) Finalizó el 6 de abril la exposición “Cuba mía” del fotógrafo colombiano (nacionalizado mexicano) Rodrigo Moya (1935-) , que había empezado el 4 de febrero en el Instituto Cervantes de Milán. La muestra consistía en 62 fotografías tomadas entre el 15 de julio y el 10 de agosto del 1964 en diferentes lugares de la Cuba post-revolucionara en recuerdo del séptimo aniversario del asalto al Cuartel Moncada. Como explica el mismo autor en la introducción del catálogo realizado por Edicions Casa Amèrica Catalunya “su intención, puramente periodística y documental, era editar un libro acerca del proceso revolucionario, iniciado en la isla a partir del primero de enero de 1959”.

El libro hubiera sido financiado por el millonario holandés Monny de Swaan, amigo de Moya, quien falleció prematuramente, y se hubiera articulado en tres partes, cada una realizada por uno de los colaboradores, todos ya empleados en la revista mexicana “Sucesos” y que viajaron juntos a Cuba: “los textos siempre amenos y bien escritos de Froylán Manjarrez, las caricaturas agudas y divertidas de Rius y mis fotografías como sostén visual”. El título hubiera sido “Cuba por tres”. Desafortunadamente después de Swaan, también Froylán falleció, a sólo 29 años y Moya tuvo que continuar solo con su proyecto. Pero tanto el catálogo como la exposición están dedicados a Manjarrez, “cómplice y camarada en aquel proyecto”. Rius editará sus caricaturas por su cuenta, en el texto didáctico “Cuba para principiantes” que tendría mucho éxito.

Se empiezan a tomar en serio las fotografías de Moya sólo en el 2005 cuando el fotógrafo catalán Claudi Carreras lo visita en su casa de Cuernavaca para entrevistarlo y ver su archivo fotográfico del cual ya se hablaba mucho, sobre todo gracias al éxito que tuvieron unas fotos que le tomó al Che Guevara. Siguen otros encuentros en México entre los dos fotógrafos, mientras que Carreras se organiza para preparar la exposición en Barcelona.
Se concreta todo en febrero del 2008 cuando Moya recibe la propuesta de Marta Nin i Camps, directora adjunta de la Casa Amèrica Catalunya, para exponer sus fotos en enero del 2009 “cuando la revolución cubana cumplía medio siglo de vida”.

La exposición estuvo acompañada por el importantísimo catálogo con todas las fotos, los comentarios personales de Moya y de los críticos Carerras, que define su “fotografía esencialmente realista, humanista y comprometida” y Bepe Baeza que, al contrario, insiste en la alegría de las tomas, “sin victimismo, pero muy próximas en su espíritu a la obra de otros fotógrafos que han querido luchar por la dignidad de las víctimas rescatándolas del anonimato”.

Las 62 fotos expuestas en Milán, que representan sólo una selección de todo el catálogo, son en blanco y negro y no tienen ningún título. Es la primera vez que se pudieron ver en Italia, pero ya habían sido expuestas en España, gracias a la Casa Amèrica Catalunya. Las fotos son completamente espontáneas, fruto de una gran emoción e involucramiento de quien las tomó: “Todo era hallazgo o descubrimiento (…) Y así, me dejé llevar por las circunstancias de cada día y capté algo de lo que miré”.

¿Por qué Moya, que había empezado a estudiar ingeniería, decidió hacer este viaje a Cuba para realizar un proyecto tan preciso? Es él mismo que nos dice que de todas las dictaduras en el mundo, la de Batista en Cuba era la que más rechazo provocaba en la juventud y en la izquierda mexicana por “los seculares intercambios de artistas e intelectuales, (…) la resonancia histórica de los exiliados de Cuba en México, empezando con José Martí, y de México en Cuba, así como la hermandad histórica”. La revolución cubana daba nuevas esperanzas a él y a muchos latinoamericanos, porque demostraba que “las dictaduras que marcaban nuestra historia no eran tan invencibles como las hacía aparecer el pensamiento servil o resignado de gobernantes, académicos e intelectuales funcionales”.

En la entrada de la exposición en Milán se puso  un tablero con doce tomas de baile y música con tambores, hombres negros y blancos en la calle muy felices. En lo que queda de la sala principal predominan fotos de la bandera de Cuba y letreros como: “Viva la paz”, “Gloria a los héroes”, “Patria o muerte”.
Siempre en la sala principal se mantuvieron ocho (de las 19 totales) famosas fotos del Che Guevara, fumando, escribiendo, pensando, antes de ir a Bolivia, las únicas de toda la exposición que ya habían sido publicadas en todo el mundo. A una de éstas Moya le puso “Che melancólico” y es justo ésta que lo ha vuelto famoso en el 2000. Durante su viaje a Cuba los tres mexicanos lograron dialogar por más de dos horas con el Che, en aquel entonces Ministro de las Industrias. Y por supuesto hay también fotos de Fidel Castro, tres, mientras declama, pero los tres jóvenes no han podido hablar con él en Cuba.

La otra sala de la exposición, más pequeña, está completamente dedicada a los trabajos y al arte cubanos, se ven personas ocupadas en diferentes oficios (albañiles, bailarinas de ballet y de cabaret, cantantes), en trabajos de campo y en fábricas de tabaco. Hay muchos primeros planos de caras felices, satisfechas por la gran victoria lograda.

No faltan referencias a la importancia de la educación en frases como: “Ser culto es el único modo de ser libre”, escrita en la pared externa de una de las muchas escuelas construidas en la región de Minas de Frío, una “sierra incomunicada y agreste, apenas poblada, desde donde los rebeldes iniciaron en 1957 las operaciones guerrilleras”.

Los organizadores de la exposición en Milán están muy satisfechos por la gran afluencia del público que la visitaron.

RL

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