El viaje a la Luna de Duncan Jones

moon-movieEn 1902 comenzaba la ciencia ficción con Viaje a la Luna, de Georges Melies. El cortometraje, con apenas 14 minutos de duración, de inmediato cautivó a los espectadores, que se vieron maravillados ante las creaciones en la pantalla. 107 años después  Duncan Jones nos regaló otro mágico relato con sede en el satélite favorito de todos los humanos, con su filme Moon (2009).

Injusta e inexplicablemente relegada, la luna es el lugar donde sucede el relato dirigido por Jones. En ese escenario ignorado por los productores en pos del planeta rojo, de extraterrestres capaces de tomar la forma del automóvil deportivo de moda, donde Nicole Kidman trata de evitar el sueño o donde Keanu Reeves finge ser un alienígena; se ve reivindicado de gran manera con el debut  del señor Jones.

Sam Bell (interpretado por el efectivo y nostálgico Sam Rockwell) trabaja para Lunar industries.  Bajo contrato por 3 años, Sam deberá recolectar el combustible libre de contaminantes y utilizado en toda la tierra HELIO-3 y enviarlo periódicamente al planeta verde. Los días de Sam transcurren entre la soledad, el ocio, los recuerdos,  uno que otro mensaje de su familia en video y GERTY (deliberadamente reminiscente de HAL 900 de Odisea al espacio): la computadora que debe atender las necesidades de Sam. Todo parece ir como se planeó, hasta que un día Sam se accidenta; debido a esto  recibe una extraña visita que le obligará a replantearse toda su existencia.

Primeramente, habría que señalar que no por ser una película de ciencia ficción se debe esperar ver extraterrestres, espectaculares explosiones y demás pirotecnia, pues los espectadores que así se predispongan sufrirán una gran desilusión. Más bien, la obra del otrora hijo de David Bowie, se inscribe dentro de los cada vez más raros, pero no por eso menos fascinantes,  sci-fi films, introspectivos, meditativos e incluso existencialistas . En estos ejemplos el mundo y la atmósfera creados por la tecnología sirven más como un telón de fondo.

Es cierto que se pueden citar muchísimas influencias en el filme, pero las que habría que destacar son Solyaris del soviético Andrei Tarkovsky; 2001: Odisea al espacio de Stanlye Kubrick y finalmente, de Ridley Scott, Blade Runner.

Se hace gala de unos sets minimalistas con predomino del color blanco, muy al estilo de Kubrick, y de la utilización de modelos a escala para los efectos especiales (combinados con CGI) muy a la antigua usanza. Lejos del planteamiento ecológico (tan en boga hoy día), se nos plantea la historia de un hombre  que cuestiona su existencia: ¿Qué es el ser humano?

 Sam  trata de recordar lo que es vivir entre humanos; riega plantas y las cuida como si se tratase de personas; construye modelos a escala que le recuerdan  ese planeta ahora tan lejano llamado Tierra e incluso tiene a GERTY, su único amigo en ese desolado y estéril mundo tecnológico.

Por otro lado, GERTY acentúa más lo delgado de la  brecha entre lo que significa ser humano o no. Si bien es cierto que su mecanizada e inexpresiva voz puede indicar lo opuesto, en los smileys desplegados en su pantalla – aunados a las acciones que realiza- se puede apreciar cierta camaradería. No sería aventurado aseverar hacia el final del filme que es palpable un cariño entre ambos, contraponiéndose el mismo a la supuesta naturaleza fría y meramente utilitaria de GERTY.

El homenaje a Solyaris es, en efecto, el detonante de toda la ola de disertaciones existenciales del protagoniasta; en ambos casos es un visitante, inesperado, quien llega para trastornar el mundo de nuestro (¿héroe?) querido Sam. Desde ese momento, el espectador quedará atrapado en un mundo donde el hombre cuestionará a cada segundo su naturaleza.

Decir más, arruinaría el filme.



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