Encontrando o selvagem Roberto Bolaño

 André Carneiro Ramos, Uerj/Faperj

 

ANDRÉ CARNEIRO RAMOS |

Uma óbvia constatação: o tempo passa mesmo muito rápido…

No último dia quinze fez dez anos que Roberto Bolaño nos deixou.

E no correr dessa data, como leitor apaixonado que sou, refleti muitíssimo em algumas das questões que aqui brevemente apresentarei, tendo como foco sua relevância para a literatura atual.

Tentemos, desse modo, por um breve momento que seja amenizar a falta que sentimos de suas coerentes e belas palavras.

(Este texto é, antes de tudo, uma declaração de amor à sua obra). 

***

Os conhecedores das peripécias de Roberto Bolaño sabem que, depois de uma larga temporada no México, ele retornaria ao Chile em 1973 para, de algum modo, engajar-se (atrevo-me a dizer, com um demasiado “idealismo”) na luta contra a ameaça ditatorial de Augusto Pinochet. Mas tal experiência não sairiamuito bem como ele imaginara. Entrariam em cena as organizações sociais e os partidos políticos, estes sim, naquele momento os grandes combatentes que acabariam perseguidos pelo militarismo imperante.

Todavia, para o azar do nosso herói, mesmo assim ele acabaria preso, sendo salvo do pelotão de fuzilamento quase que no último minuto e justo porque um dos carcereiros havia sido um colega seu de infância, facilitando-lhe a fuga…

Essa história é bem famosa, e contribuiu para solidificar ainda mais o mito Bolaño. Mas o interessanteé o modo como ele sempre se colocaria de algum modo na condição de personagem em seus escritos. Há um conto, publicado no livro Llamadas Telefónicas (1997), chamado “Detectives”, em que ele “reescreve” este acontecimento, e faz isso sinalizando uma de suas maiores particularidades como escritor: a sua constante tentativa de reavaliação do passado.

Creio que toda a obra de Bolaño, nesse sentido, representaria uma provocação ao sempre relacionar criação literária a relatos memorialísticos. Temas como mímeses e representação, ou realismo e veracidade, também estariam aí envolvidos. Porém, de todas as suas obras, talvez Los detectives salvajes seja o seu “cartão de visitas” nesse quesito, pois que funcionaria como uma espécie de palco para expor suas aspirações declaradas no manifesto infrarrealista que escrevera em 1976, dentre elas o dito “(…) poner o mundo em palabras”. E o leitor, a essa altura também um “detetive”, passaria também a ficar diante de um quadro com frenéticos e fortes matizes, sugerindo uma aridez paisagística inescapável,algo que teria mesmo de ser percorrida por Ulises Lima e Arturo Belano.

Há uma bonita frase do autor, que encontrei no seu Entre parêntesis, livro publicado postumamente em 2004 e que reúne alguns de seus principais textos jornalísticos: “(…) todo lo que he escrito es una carta de amor o de despedida a mi propia generación”. Ela sinaliza a sua consciência em relação à perseguição vivida pelos poetas infrarrealistas, um fosso que se abria cada vez mais entre a militância poética e a dura realidade que os cercava.

Nesse caso, uma ideia de despedida, corriqueira quando se fala de viajantes, poderia estar associada a um fracasso existencial também. Primeiro que é um fato terem publicado pouquíssimos poemas naquele período, inclusive por sabotagens maquinadas pelo grupo de Octavio Paz; segundo porque se percebe um desequilíbrio dentro do próprio movimento, pois os poetas realvisceralistas estariam maravilhados demais – como fica evidente na primeira parte do romance Los detectives salvajes, não por acaso intitulada “Mexicanos perdidos en México (1975)” – com o caso de agora pertencerem a uma efervescente vida literária, boêmia e desregrada, etc.

Isso fica bem claro ao escutarmos primeira vez a voz de García Madero (jovem aspirante a poeta e estreante no movimento realvisceralista), e isso nos dá conta de que tal personagem funcionarácomo uma espécie de elemento catalisador de todo esse declínio, ele próprio uma alegoria da realidade cultural mexicana retratada no romance.

O leitor, assim, é apresentado a uma situação de enfraquecimento. Quando Ulises Lima e Arturo Belano desaparecem isso se torna um problema ainda mais sério, como se eles representassem a “força” que levava os realvisceralistas adiante. Suas idas e vindas ao longo da história, seus “desaparecimentos”, concebem uma oscilação na dinâmica do grupo que passa a ter uma produção poética quase nula e esteticamente discutível.

O importante é que tudo isso servia para um apropriado diálogo; porém, sem a presença dos mentores Lima/Belano, acabou mal aproveitado pelo grupo; aliás, esses dois passariam a ter uma aura de mistério tão grande que o próprio leitor admite considerá-los como entidades à margem de tudo e de todos. Da sociedade, inclusive.

Nesse ponto, García Madero segue dominando a cena com sua ânsia poética enfraquecida em virtude de seus encontros e desencontros com outros personagens, mulheres em sua grande maioria, pois ocorre de sua parte uma busca incessante por sexo. Acredito que tal fato reforce o vazio existencial do personagem, que não consegue se definir em seus relacionamentos assim como no projeto realvisceralista e na poesia que tanto almeja publicar, mas não consegue.

Como se vê,essa “fantasmagoria” de Roberto Bolaño é mesmo forte no texto, mesmo quando Arturo Belano desaparece. O próprio García Madero contém em si rastros de seu criador, pois que suas dúvidas e questionamentos funcionarem como projeções das do autor. Arturo Belano quase que não diz nada na primeira parte do livro, agindo muito mais através de uma forte e enigmática “presença”.

Assim, aparte as fronteiras entre ficção e filosofia, considero-me consciente de que o problema da memória, no campo da literatura, é algo amplamente obscuro; e por isso mesmo, trata-se de um problema literário. E contrariando certos ditames filosóficos, ao olhar para o seu passado o escritor pode vir a pressionar os limites de um real que, nesse caso, reorganizar-se-ia dissimulado até, como uma história mesmo inventada.

Se a literatura está entre nós, reequilibrando nossos perdões e promessas, e as experiências do escritor em tudo isso sobrevive sob a regência de lembranças que teimam em não desaparecer, a escrita literária por vezes pode surgir de tais recordações; nesse caso, além de outras indagações, a memória do escritor passaria de um irrequieto estado de contemplação para o imperativo ato de contar.E é no resultado magistral dessa equação que iremos encontrar sempre este selvagem chamado Roberto Bolaño.

Em muitos de seus livros se percebe uma tentativa de resgate do movimento infrarrealista/realvisceralista ocorrido no México na década de setenta, como também num modo de se manterem vivas as ideias ali discutidas e poeticamente plasmadas.

Ao fazer isso, Bolaño recapitulou cenas não somente mexicanas, mas latino-americanas, não oferecendo ao leitor um sentido ideológico apenas, até porque o seu propósito se distanciava de um efeito “moralizante”. Seus textos são como momentos de epifania dos costumes e vícios de todo um continente, que o levaram a compreender melhor seus compatriotas e talvez se conscientizar de sua relevância como um escritor ao mesmo tempo latino-americano e universal.

Arrisquemos agora, nos anos que se seguirão, manter viva a memória deste selvagem verdadeiro,que está sendo mencionadoaqui não somente por sua louvável dedicação à literatura.

Meu nome é André Carneiro Ramos, faço doutorado em Literatura Comparada e vivencio a experiência de uma bolsa de estudos em Salamanca, que durará seis meses.

 | RMM  | ACR  |

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