Francisco Hinojosa: escribir sin imposiciones

Entrevista Francisco Hinojosa 1

“Es mejor un fracaso contundente que un éxito mediano”

Por Óscar Zapata

(Mex)Una lluvia torrencial nos impide abandonar las instalaciones. El Maestro Francisco Hinojosa termina de impartir el Taller de cuento en el Centro de las Artes de San Agustín Etla, Oaxaca. La entrevista tendrá que hacerse como lo sugiere la novela más famosa de Kerouac: “On the Road”. Subimos a una Van cuya suspensión deteriorada nos transmite cada una de las múltiples irregularidades de la carretera. Francisco Hinojosa, poeta, dramaturgo, editor, ensayista y escritor de cuentos, autor del cuento infantil más leído y reconocido en México, La peor señora del mundo, pasa su mano por la cabeza, desprovista prácticamente de cabello. Seca las gotas de lluvia de su rostro; ajusta sus anteojos.

¿Cómo ha sido su relación con Oaxaca?

El primer libro que escribí fue un libro para parteras empíricas de Oaxaca (las risas no se hacen esperar, incluso el chofer se une a las carcajadas). Es en serio, me puse a investigar para que hubiera más higiene durante los partos en los pueblos. La primera lengua a la que fui traducido fue al zapoteco. La primera gran borrachera que me puse fue con mezcal. Ahora soy autor de una editorial oaxaqueña. He tenido una relación constante y permanente con Oaxaca, he ido a varias escuelas normales a dar pláticas sobre el fomento a la lectura, a los maestros de los futuros maestros.

¿Cuál es su perspectiva del ámbito estrictamente cultural en Oaxaca, me refiero a la difusión y creación de manifestaciones artísticas?

No he estado ligado hasta el momento en cuestiones que hace el gobierno, ni conozco el grado de participación que tenga en recintos culturales, pero lo que hacen las instituciones privadas como CaSa (Centro de las artes de San Agustín Etla), IAGO (Instituto de Artes Gráficas de Oaxaca), editorial Almadia y la Feria del Libro es importante y grande. La difusión la están haciendo las instituciones privadas.

Ahora que menciona a Almadia, y como lo que nos compete es la literatura, ¿qué opina del singular caso de esta editorial oaxaqueña?

Hay autores como Juan Villoro, Jorge Volpi, Sergio Pitol, que podrían publicar donde quisieran y están publicando en Almadia. Han encontrado un perfil editorial muy bueno, joven, y que ha preferido vender mucho a un buen precio, que vender poco a un precio mayor; que es a lo que apuestan otras editoriales. Los libros se encuentran en todas partes, tienen un diseño atrevido, novedoso, bueno. El primer libro que publiqué con ellos, Poesía eras tú, es una especie de novela en verso que se distingue por su experimentalismo. Texto ‘raro’ que no podría publicarse en otra editorial tan fácilmente.

¿A qué podría atribuir esa apuesta por lo experimental y la novedad?

Creo que la editorial tiene muy buenos editores y que saben olfatear donde están las cosas. Muestra de ello es que han logrado editar a autores como Le Clézio, un premio Nobel, lo que habla muy bien de la editorial. Además han encontrado talentos jóvenes como el caso de Alberto Chimal. Están combinando autores de la viaja guardia y autores jóvenes.

¿A que podría deberse que un proyecto así se esté gestando en Oaxaca, un estado que en el pasado no se caracterizaba por ser semillero de proyectos culturales?

No es un estado que se caracterice por altos niveles de lectura, pero se está avanzando mucho. El ejemplo de Almadia es una muestra de ello, han sabido rastrear el talento y conformar un equipo muy joven y talentoso. Esa inyección de vitalidad de la juventud ha contagiado no sólo a los autores, sino que ha sido bien recibida por los lectores.

¿La apuesta es entonces por incentivar la industria editorial mexicana? ¿O a qué se debe esta tendencia a recurrir a una editorial mexicana creada en un estado con un evidente rezago cultural? ¿Podría leerse, incluso, como un proyecto político?

En mi caso es una apuesta por la búsqueda de lectores. Hace 10 años publiqué un libro de cuentos en otra editorial con un tiraje de 2 mil ejemplares y hasta la fecha no se han vendido, en cambio un tiraje de 4 mil ejemplares en Almadia se agotó en un año. Es algo que habla, no tanto económicamente, sino que indica que los libros están circulando, que están llegando a los lectores. Es una editorial que no le pide nada a nadie.

¿Qué opina del nivel de participación y la calidad de los talleristas en Oaxaca comparado con otros estados, en particular el centro del país?

Casi todos los talleres que he dado han sido fuera del centro del país y casi todos dedicados a literatura infantil. Pero podría decir que aquí hay más disposición por experimentar en literatura y en otros casos se piensa que teniendo una historia en la cabeza todo se da; y definitivamente es mucho más que eso. En talleres como el que imparto ahora en CaSa Etla lo que más me gusta hacer es invitar a la experimentación. ¡Vamos a romper con lo que ya existe, vamos a tratar de crear algo nuevo! Porque si no lo hacemos, no vamos a llegar a ningún lado.

Es mejor un fracaso contundente que un éxito mediano. Todos los cuentos que voy a sacar en un nuevo libro, editado por Almadia, tienen como fundamento experimentar una manera de contar historias. Siempre estoy buscando la manera en que las historias se cuenten como deberían de haberse contado ellas mismas sin que yo les imponga nada.

En este afán de experimentación, ¿existe alguna poética personal a la que se apegue Francisco Hinojosa?

En primer lugar la escritura como placer. Si no me causa placer esa escritura, algo no está funcionando ahí. Creo además que ese placer se puede transmitir al lector. Segundo, siempre pienso en el lector. Imagino un lector inteligente, con ciertas competencias narrativas y capaz de identificar referencias intertextuales. En el caso de la literatura para adultos privilegio más la escritura que la historia. Me gusta correr riesgos y me importa sobretodo la experiencia de la escritura.

Privilegiar la experimentación en lugar de la historia, pareciera en algún sentido contrario a las viejas poéticas del cuento como la de Maupassant o Chéjov. ¿Es esto deliberado?

Deliberadamente contracorriente. A lo que atiendo, más que nada, es a esa escritura, la que me está dictando ‘esa otra parte’ que es la historia; en el proceso lo que encontré fue una escritura que no está en un canon o un recetario. Estoy buscando permanentemente decir algo que todavía no sé que es. Primero encuentro la manera en cómo lo voy a decir y luego lo digo.  Se corren riesgos, pero repito, es mejor un fracaso contundente que un éxito mediano.

Editorialmente se corre el riego de que el cuento no sea rentable. Es más fácil publicar una novela mediana que un gran libro de cuentos. ¿Qué opina usted?

Lamentablemente tiene más lectores la novela que el cuento. Se le sigue pidiendo al cuentista que llega a una editorial que primero publique una novela y después, si así lo quiere, un libro de cuentos. Por ejemplo, siempre se le pidió a Carver que escribiera una novela, por supuesto se rehusó. Hay quien es escritor de cuentos. Yo me defino como escritor de cuentos. Sin embargo, que un texto mío, por su extensión o formato pueda ser llamado novela o cuento, no es algo que me afecte ni me importe. Lo que me importa es que esté emparentado con esa experiencia de escritura que en todo momento estoy buscando.

La Van se estaciona a la entrada del hotel Casa Conzatti. Descendemos y la lluvia se ha convertido en un tímido chispear. Estrechamos manos y la figura del cuentista se aleja mientras echa a sus espaldas una mochila que, seguramente, no se quita ni para dormir. Jeovanny, uno de los talleristas y quien también aprovechó el ‘aventón’ de vuelta a la ciudad, me comenta lo estimulante que fue escuchar al escritor. Me despido del joven y lo observo marcharse por las calles de Oaxaca. Seguro va a llegar a casa a experimentar esa escritura de la que tanto se habló y de la que yo entiendo muy poco.

AM/RL

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