Exvoto contemporáneo

“Prostitución, cabaret y table dance”

Ciudad de México.- Tras diez años de investigación a lo largo de la República Mexicana, arribó a la Sala Cristina Payán del Museo Nacional de Culturas Populares la exposición Favores insólitos. Exvoto contemporáneo, en la que pueden apreciarse 180 piezas ya consideradas como una forma de arte popular.

En ellas se muestra desde la evolución del Exvoto tradicional, hecho durante los siglos XIX y XX que se enfocaba principalmente a la devoción religiosa, hasta el que se realiza en la actualidad con una temática más transgresora, incluso considerada “grotesca”.

Raúl Cano, curador de la muestra, comentó que su finalidad es mostrar cómo al no ser llevado a las iglesias, este arte ha perdido su fin piadoso, y, por el contrario, muestra lo “incómodo” de las sociedades —como la homosexualidad o la infidelidad—, temas que anteriormente no eran públicos pero que ahora el exvoto lo “representa” con la ayuda y el respaldo de los santos.

Por ello la exhibición —inédita en el país— refleja como esta corriente plástica sigue siendo completamente mexicana, a pesar de estar integrada por piezas provenientes del extranjero, pues, de acuerdo con Cano, no han sido valoradas en territorio nacional pese a ser “documentos históricos de las sociedades contemporáneas”.

En su origen, estos retablos eran realizados por gente del campo, con la finalidad de agradecer los favores recibidos por los santos. Entre sus características destaca la ausencia de proporciones, favorecido generalmente al acompañado de la virgen o el santo a quien se agradece. A estas imágenes se les incorpora un breve texto explicativo que frecuentemente destaca por la comicidad involuntaria de su forma, por ejemplo: “Doy infinitas gracias a la Virgen por habernos librado a mi hija y a mí de la epidemia de partos que hubo en la Revolución”.

La muestra, que permanecerá en exhibición hasta el mes de octubre, está dividida en 13 ejes temáticos, de entre los que destaca “Tradicional ficticio”, compuesto por pastiches de los exvotos existentes durante los siglos XIX y XX, los cuales abordan problemas de salud o accidentes cotidianos y en los que siempre aparece el santo que produjo el milagro y un texto narrativo.

En la sección “Rituales y hechicería” se muestran piezas que aluden a personas que recurren a estas prácticas para obtener favores, como el amor o trabajo, pero que gracias a la ayuda de la Virgen de Guadalupe logran deshacer el hechizo.

También se encuentran retablos realizados por payasos, trapecistas, domadores y mujeres barbudas agradeciendo tener un empleo digno o haber salvado la vida, estas piezas integran el apartado “Circo, maroma y teatro”.

Asimismo en “Los ídolos del pueblo” se exhiben exvotos realizados por celebridades como Mauricio Garcés, La Chupitos o Laura León, en los que agradecen un milagro o el éxito en su trabajo. También encontramos “Favores insólitos”, donde se agradecen cuestiones tan curiosas como la curación de hemorroides, un buen desempeño sexual luego de haber tomado viagra, o la abundancia de dinero, aunque se haya obtenido de forma ilícita.

Otra de las secciones que puede resultar de particular interés para el público es “Prostitución, cabaret y table dance”, donde mujeres agradecen tener trabajo, contar con muchos clientes, o bien, retribuyen la ayuda que les dio la Virgen de la Soledad para encontrar un hombre que las sacara del ambiente.

Otras secciones que se exhiben son “Alucinaciones y aparecidos”, “Problemas con la suegra”, “Diversidad sexual”, “Infidelidad”, “Amor y desamor”, “Ídolos del Ring”, y “Superhéroes”.

RMM/EZ

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