Frida: pionera del surrealismo mexicano

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En la boca de muchos intelectuales y amantes de la pintura mexicana, siempre encontraremos los nombres de los más destacados pintores mexicanos, aquellos que nos han otorgado parte de lo que llamamos el “orgullo mexicano”. No serán pocos los que al hablar de surrealismo mexicano ligarán las imágenes con el pensamiento y obra de André Bretón, sin embargo, hay que hablar también del surrealismo innato que existía en México antes de la llegada de este pensador francés y que el mismo Bretón supo distinguir a su llegada a México.

El siglo XIX mexicano fue un turbulento periodo de cambios y de invenciones pero no sólo en el ámbito político y en los asuntos exteriores, sino también para la pintura mexicana. Sin duda la Academia de San Carlos fue la productora de arte más importante y gracias a esta surgieron grandes pintores de reconocimiento internacional. Pero hay que señalar que esta Academia sólo cobijaba la producción artística aceptada por esta y por el grupo oficial que encabezara entonces el gobierno.

El siglo XX y su Revolución Mexicana movió desde lo más profundo la producción de todas las expresiones artísticas, la pintura no fue su excepción. El periodo presidencial del General Lázaro Cárdenas del Río (1934-1940) significó para el país una estabilidad política, una innovación cultural y entrañables cambios sociales. Las innovaciones para la pintura se tradujeron en la necesidad de poner en un lugar distinto la producción artística, y no sólo darle cabida a los murales, que sólo beneficiaban un sector ya con prestigio ganado y que no daba lugar a la nueva tendencia que se plasmaba en caballete.

Los pintores, incluso los muralistas, tienen como sostén vital la venta de sus obras y en México no existía un espacio que satisficiera dichas necesidades. Por estas razones y con un nacionalismo exacerbado se fundó en 1935 la Galería de Arte Mexicano, con la participación de Carolina Amor, perteneciente a una familia adinerada y aficionada al arte, y una serie de pintores, amigos de la familia. Entre los que más destacaron fueron Diego Rivera (como el principal de ellos), José Clemente Orozco, David Alfaro Siqueiros y Rufino Tamayo.

En los primeros años la Galería de Arte Mexicano (GAM) se dedicó a promover la pintura totalmente mexicana, que empezaba a surgir en importancia ante la popularidad aplastante de los artistas extranjeros. El mercado de pinturas se abrió no sólo para el consumo local, sino también al externo, siendo los Estados Unidos de América uno de los clientes más asiduos de la imaginería nacional.

En 1940 la GAM se embarcó en una empresa que abriría una nueva etapa para la creatividad mexicana, se expondrían por primera vez, obras extranjeras junto con obras de artistas mexicanos en una magna exposición que llevó por nombre “La Internacional del Surrealismo” con la participación del poeta surrealista César Moro y la organización del austriaco Wolfgang Paalen (artista adscrito a la misma corriente), enviado por el propio Bretón.

Cuando André Bretón estuvo en México, en la famosa alianza Rivera-Bretón-Trotsky, conoció la pintura mexicana y notó en ella un surrealismo innato, el pueblo mexicano de por sí ya era imaginativo, fantasioso y con una vasta producción de lo subjetivo. Bretón no sólo vio esta conciencia surrealista natural mexicana únicamente en la pintura, sino también en la vida cotidiana y en la cultura que se respiraba en aquel entonces en nuestro país.

Con este panorama se hizo la apertura de la exposición, dividida en dos partes: una de surrealismo extranjero donde , por cierto, estuvieron dos cuadros de Diego Rivera; y otra para el surrealismo mexicano, en la que se expusieron dos obras de Frida Kahlo, en quien Bretón vio todas sus teorías humanizadas y hechas mujer.

FRIDA KAHLO (1908-1954)

Kahlo participó en esta primera exposición surrealista con las obras: Las Dos Fridas y La Mesa Herida.

¿Por qué Frida Kahlo representa el surrealismo mexicano? Antes que nada podríamos comparar la historia vivencial de Frida con la historia de nuestro propio pueblo, en cuanto a las fuertes heridas y sufrimiento por las que ambas pasaron, a partir de una grave enfermedad que para Kahlo se llamaba poliomielitis y que para el trauma colectivo mexicano, según Edmundo O´Gorman, se nombraba la conquista española. Ambas sufrieron terribles heridas a partir de un accidente mortal del que salieron vivos, Frida sufrió un accidente de tránsito mientras viajaba en un camión que chocó con un tranvía, el cual le produjo fractura de la tercera y cuarta vértebras lumbares, tres fracturas en pelvis, herida permanente de abdomen producida por un hierro que entró por la cadera saliendo por el sexo, rompiendo el labio izquierdo, peritonitis aguda, por la que estuvo encamada tres meses y una fractura de columna de la que los doctores no se percataron en un primer momento, por lo que la inmovilizaron con un corsé de yeso durante nueve meses; cuando por fin le quitaron el corsé pudo seguir con su vida normal aunque era común que se sintiera cansada constantemente.

Después de esta larga recuperación del accidente y durante toda su vida, Frida Kahlo experimentaría una importante cantidad de intervenciones quirúrgicas, incluyendo la amputación de su pie derecho. Para el caso mexicano el accidente se llamaría Independencia y las múltiples heridas se pueden constatar a lo largo de las intervenciones extranjeras y las pruebas de gobiernos poco edificatorios durante todo nuestro siglo XIX, con una inmovilización llamada paz de 30 años, con una ruptura importante casi imperceptible que nos llevaría a la Revolución Mexicana, al quitar esa lucha que tanto molestaba, el país tuvo una estabilidad política, aunque algunas veces fatigada.

Frida plasma en su obra sus propias vivencias, la alegoría exacta de lo que está viviendo en su presente, cómo lo interpreta y cómo cree que los demás lo viven. Además deja ver sus amplios conocimientos de los hechos pasados y presentes y muestra incluso sus tendencias políticas escondidas explícitamente en sus pinturas.

En La Mesa Herida plasma dos momentos: la Última Cena y la infidelidad de su esposo Diego Rivera. Ocupando el lugar de honor se encuentra ella, unida por la mano derecha a un ídolo prehispánico con patas de palo, símbolo de su profundo sentimiento mexicano que también se aprecia en el telón de la escena. El lugar de Judas Iscariote, el gran traidor del Nuevo Testamento, lo ocupa Diego Rivera, reconocible por el overol azul y por las proporciones del mismo, que al igual que el ingrato bíblico pone la mano en la mesa y con la otra abraza, más que paternalmente, amenazadoramente a Kahlo. En la escena también se ve una muerte de papel maché.

Frida gustaba de estos elementos ornamentales desde muy pequeña y los reproducía para adornar su habitación, además de representar la muerte que había rondado la vida de la pintora durante toda su existencia. A la derecha de la imagen del marido infiel se encuentran los dos hijos de Cristina, hermana de Frida, con quien Rivera cometió la imperdonable indiscreción y el elemento del sentimiento maternal de Kahlo que nunca fue materializado en vida. Otro elemento mexicano y completamente inocente, indefenso y lejos de la pareja, es el venado, a la derecha de la imagen.

Cortinas de teatro enmarcan la obra, resaltando aún más la dramatización que se hace más profunda con la sangre que mancha partes importantes de la misma, como son los pies de Rivera, los pies desollados que rematan las patas de la mesa y el faldón de Frida, un constante recuerdo de la deformidad de los pies y las piernas de la pintora a partir de sus constantes sufrimientos. Y por último la misma mesa, centro del hogar mexicano, manchada de sangre por la profunda herida que ha sufrido en esos días. El pecado, es una peca del alma, una mancha que no se borra aún a pesar de los años.

AM/RL

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