Verdad y arte

Francisco Goya Maja_Vestida

Sin música, la vida sería un error.
Friedrich Nietzsche.

Suele pensarse del arte como una forma para huir de la cotidianeidad y de la mera praxis de la  cosas; sin embargo, no es común que nos pongamos a cuestionar el valor y uso del arte más allá del valor estético que es un hecho inherente a ella. En primera instancia, se nos presentan los cuestionamientos: ¿Cabe hablar de verdad o falsedad en las artes? ¿Poseen un valor cognoscitivo al margen de otras manifestaciones humanas del conocimiento?

El arte no es la manifestación de la representación (copia o mera imágen de algo); sino de la voluntad de creación. No se sumerge por debajo de la superficie empírica; sino por encima de ella. El arte no sólo nos revela el valor de la inmediatez: la congelación de la causalidad; sino que también nos revela el estado del espíritu. Si el arte cumpliera estrictamente la condición de ser considerado arte siempre y cuando representase la realidad de forma objetiva, entonces no podríamos hablar de arte, el arte nos presenta los universales, la totalidad del espíritu desde un punto de vista subjetivo; utiliza los particulares para acceder a los universales, en un terreno desconocido para la ciencia que se horroriza de tal hecho porque ella afirma: <Es debido llegar a los universales a través de lo general y objetivo; ahí está la verdad>.

La ciencia nos confiere frecuentemente que el arte no es una fuente de verdad; ¿Cómo habría de ser la cosa subjetiva la configuración de la verdad? Incluso algunos autores como Lukács el arte es el conocimiento de la esencia de lo real; por lo cual, el realismo es el arte por excelencia, ya que es el que mejor cumple con dicha condición. El Realismo cumple con una función cognoscitiva, es el único que puede aportarle conocimientos a la sociedad a través de la historia. “El realismo es el verdadero arte”.

Empero; no podemos ignorar la existencia de innumerables obras de arte que no pertenecen al género Realista, ¿Cómo podemos crear un concepto que afirme que sí aportan conocimiento a la sociedad? ¿Por el simple hecho de no pertenecer al Realismo, tenemos que descalificarlas de verdaderas y clasificarlas como mentirosas? Una de las características de los literatos; es que tratan de presentar la realidad, distorsionada o no (dependiendo del género y artista; además de las necesidades de cada época). Para ello se hacen valer de personajes eminentemente irreales (lo que descartaría también al Realismo como único arte verdadero) que; sin embargo, sirven para sus fines. Por ejemplo; en el Quijote, como lo muestra el autor, es claro que el protagonista no existió, no existe y jamás existirá.

Por otro lado es difícil pensar que alguna persona pueda aglutinar toda esa gama de experiencia e idiosincrasia propias del caballero de la triste figura. A pesar de ello; es claro que dicha obra es reflejo de una época, de los usos y costumbres de una sociedad. En ello reside la virtud del autor, en presentar la realidad utilizando la irrealidad como herramienta, conjugando en uno todos los Quijotes de la época. Las proposiciones del Quijote constituyen cada una por su cuenta enunciados que carecen de verdad o falsedad; porque no hay correspondencia con lo real; pero en su conjunto, el total de proposiciones que conforman el Quijote en el contexto total de la obra permiten enriquecer nuestro conocimiento y por tanto poseen atribuciones cognoscitivas contundentes.

Ahora bien; tal hecho es susceptible a extrapolarse a otras artes en tanto que las consideremos un lenguaje; es debida nuestra prudencia al intentar llevar a cabo dicha tarea ya que los signos y expresiones de cada lenguaje poseen sus particularidades. Podemos hablar de función cognoscitiva en todas las artes; aunque no explicaremos ahora el caso particular de cada una de ellas. Es cierto que ofrecen conocimiento; pero no podemos compararlo ni con el conocimiento cotidiano ni con el científico. Estos tres aportan a la humanidad parte de su naturaleza al desarrollo social, tienen objetivos y esencias diferentes y en ciertos casos opuestas; sin que por ello una tenga que situarse por encima de la otra.

Claro que para el arte la concepción de la verdad es de suma importancia –pero la función cognoscitiva es sólo una de las funciones del arte–. En ocasiones el artista intenta presentar la realidad tal cual es, en otras tantas intenta ocultarla, busca representar un espejo; relucir lo contario a la verdad, da una visión paralela, también da rienda suelta a la realidad subjetiva, al inconsciente y al conocimiento interior. Las relaciones que adoptan significado y significante varían significativamente; el mundo es voluntad, el arte la voluntad de los trágicos, de los que aceptan el destino erguidos, las maneras de articular los signos cambian y el artista asume esa postura, el mundo es mi creación, lo que yo quiera que sea y a través del arte lo representa en el espíritu absoluto.

El arte de hoy; el contemporáneo es lo que llaman arte abstracto y del que se dice que es nada y hay quienes le desprecian. Lo que aquí se nos desvanece al tacto es lo claro, tocamos el agua y no la sentimos. El arte abstracto por su condición no pierde su función cognoscitiva; al contrario, las formas más vanguardistas y transgresoras en el arte aportan una gran cantidad de conocimiento. Tampoco por eso habremos de despreciar a las otras, puesto que las unas son resultados de las primeras. A través del arte de hoy apreciaremos el cambio dramático que ha dado la voluntad de representar ya no a través de perífrasis o grandes metáforas como el culteranismo de antaño; sino a la exposición de la realidad absoluta desnuda, el abstracto cumple aquí una alta función cognoscitiva. El arte contemporáneo es la belleza desnuda y no por ello suprema; también presupone la seducción previa.

A las preguntas iniciales habrá que responder que si cabe hablar de verdad y falsedad en las artes porque en efecto nos ofrecen una función cognoscitiva, pero es debido estudiar las particularidades de cada leguaje artístico para acceder al mundo de las proposiciones discursivas de cada disciplina. En segundo lugar que si tienen un valor cognoscitivo diferente de otras manifestaciones del conocimiento humano. La naturaleza cognoscitiva es propia del arte de un modo necesario y esencial pero no único.

RL

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