Estridencia documental [GIFF 2013]

“La alfombra roja” (2012) de Manuel Fernández

GONZALO TRINIDAD VALTIERRA | ENVIADO ESPECIAL

Guanajuato, Gto.- En el Festival Internacional de Cine de Guanajuato las miradas documentales se postran sobre la India. La alfombra roja (España, 2012) de Manuel Fernández y Hermano de sangre (Blood Brother, EE.UU., 2012) de Steve Hoover, son parte de la selección oficial. Ambos exploran la vida en la India, de manera muy particular. Retratan un rostro doloroso y miserable de esta tierra vasta y contradictoria.

La alfombra roja se asoma en la vida en los Slums de Garib Nabar, en el distrito de Bandra. Los Slums son una suerte de fabelas o barrios pobres en las afueras de las ciudades indias. En ellos la violencia es desmesurada. Las tomas aéreas revelan la miseria de las casas de lámina y las calles desbordadas de basura. Los niños deambulan entre ríos de aguas negras y montañas de escombros. Una configuración del espacio que en Latinoamérica también conocemos.

Las vías de los trenes atraviesan los Slums, aunque pocas personas salen de ahí. El espacio contrasta con los rostros de los niños que juegan con los desperdicios que se elevan, a veces, sobre sus cabezas. Relatan su vida en estos resquicios olvidados, hablan de sus amigos y sus sueños. Desde el cielo estos barrios pobres lucen como heridas abiertas en los límites de las ciudades.

Es en uno de estos barrios marginados es donde vive Rubina Ali, una niña de 12 años, que actuó en la película Slumdog Millionare (2008), de Danny Boyle, quien dará una conferencia magistral en el GIFF. Ruina continua viviendo en los Slums, a pesar de haber participado en una película ganadora de varios premios. Cuenta que su mayor anhelo es mudarse a los suburbios, eso y ser actriz.

La mayoría de estos niños, igual que Rubina, anhelan mudarse a un edificio para poder vivir de otra forma. La mayoría nunca saldrán del Slum, eso es un hecho. Aun así, el documental retrata someramente como juegan y sobreviven día tras día.

Blood Brother

Tu sangre es venenosa. Esa es la forma en que se expresan de los niños enfermos de VIH en la comunidad donde Rocky Braat trabaja en la India, muy lejos de su Pittsburg natal, en lo Estados Unidos.

Los niños son tan delicados que dependen de un coctel de drogas que a veces causa efectos desastrosos en sus cuerpos, como ceguera o pérdida de la piel. Pero saben que su vida depende de tomar o no la pastilla. El documental está cargado, por momentos, de escenas emotivas y casi melodramáticas. A pesar de eso, logra narrar una historia muy dura, la vida de los niños excluidos por la ignorancia y la ineptitud de un sistema de salud deficiente.

Al margen de la vida y los conflictos morales de Rocky, hay una terrible verdad asomándose, el registro de estas vidas frágiles y sus muertes. A pesar de intentar salvar a otros, el final es impostergable y todos mueren solos.

En un mundo donde la enfermedad son incurables, por lo menos se propone que la muere de los niños sea especial. Para ello es preciso amar esos seres de cuerpos flacuchos que parecen hechos de pura fragilidad. Después de todo así es la vida, frágil e inestable.

En el calor de la India, una vez que el destino de alguien se ha marcado ha de ser cumplirlo, ya sea Rocky o cualquier niño bajo su cuidado. En esta misma comunidad las madres infectadas con VIH cuidan a los huérfanos, los adoptan como hijos. Parece ser un recodo del mundo para gente herida y excluida donde pueden encontrar descanso, aunque se un instante.

Porfirio

En una zona indefinida, entre la realidad y la ficción. Porfirio (Colombia, 2011) de Alejandro Landes es un documental y en parte un filme con escenas recreadas a partir de un suceso real. Porfirio es habitante de una ciudad amazónica, y es discapacitado. Anda en silla de ruedas, lo cual significa que anda un poco más cerca de la tierra, sólo eso. Pero para el Estado eso significa que puede hacer como si no existiera. Lo cual orilló a Porfirio a convertirse en aeropirata el 12 de septiembre de 2005.

El documental narra la vida de Porfirio confinado a purgar su condena encerrado en su casa. Retrata su vida. El filme utilizó al propio Porfirio como actor, un hombre de cejas prominentes, con la piel marcada por la silla de ruedas. Las escenas, inspiradas en el cine de Ozu, deconstruyen el cuerpo, esa cárcel que todos habitamos. Pero en el caso de Porfirio es una cartografía de su condición. Acercamientos a las piernas delgadas, a los brazos sumamente fuertes, al torso lastimado, al rostro de mirada profunda dan la impresión de un estudio minucioso del cuerpo a través del lente de la cámara. Un acierto para este documental.

Sin embargo, adolece de la falta de música, un elemento difícilmente prescindible; y por otro lado, largas escenas y tomas fijas aumentan la sensación de encierro. Eso era lo que se pretendía quizás. Lograr una metáfora del doble encierro, el del cuerpo y el de la carel.

El documental tiene varias lecturas, algunas dejan mucho a la imaginación. Otras más precisan pueden ser el estudio de las barreras físicas y sociales Con que tienen que lidiar las personas con discapacidad.

Se agradece que el documental no tenga intenciones de moralizar. Simplemente narra la historia de un héroe y antihéroe al mismo tiempo. La mirada de Porfirio directamente a la cámara habla por sí misma. Esto crea un sentimiento de cercanía con el espectador, y un sentimiento de corporalidad, una narración a partir del cuerpo.

De vuelta a México: el prefijo narco

Se presentó en el Teatro Juárez el largometraje documental Narco Cultura (México, 2013), del director Shaul Schwarz, quien ha hecho gran parte de su carrera como fotógrafo. Este filme aborda las expresiones culturales que han surgido en torno al negocio del narcotráfico, especialmente los narcocorridos.

La neblina sobre Juárez luce como un manto denso y putrefacto. Del otro lado de la frontera, El Paso es nombrada la ciudad más segura de los Estados Unidos. Y Juárez es nombrada la capital mundial del crimen. ¿Como se explica que dos ciudades hermanas sean totalmente opuestas? Resulta un efecto de espejo. Mientras tanto los niños anhelan poder mudarse al otro lado de la frontera para librarse de las matanzas y las balas que han dejado miles de muertos en los últimos años.

El documental retrata la vida de ambos lados de la frontera. En Estados Unidos prolifera toda una cultura que exacerba la violencia a través de los corridos, pero donde los jóvenes no tienen que vivir el horror de una guerra afuera de sus casas. Conciertos, fiestas, reconocimiento y dinero es la clase de éxito que anhelan los compositores.

Los autores de narcocorridos tienen un papel primordial en la legitimación de los narcotraficantes como los nuevos modelos de éxito y fama. Muchos de ellos son jóvenes que nunca han vivido en carne propia la violencia que han tenido que soportar las personas del lado sur de la frontera, pero que han encontrado un modo de alcanzar el american dream, cantando la apología de estos modernos bandoleros.

Estos juglares son contratados por los narcotraficantes y sicarios para que compongan corridos que exalten la figura de estos hombres. Pagos en efectivo, pistolas con cachas de oro y más son las recompensas por una buena canción.

El documental narra el caso del joven vocalista del grupo Buknas, que vive en Los Ángeles, y se ha convertido en un ídolo para los latinos que viven en los Estados Unidos, debido a su habilidad para componer corridos.

Buknas es uno de tantos grupos musicales que han tenido mucho éxito glorificando a quien sea que tenga dinero para pagar por sus servicios. Es tal el desprendimiento de la realidad mexicana, que los compositores tienen que recurrir al internet para acumular información que les de ideas para sus composiciones.

En México la historia es otra. El espectáculo termina en cuanto las balas comienzan a zumbar.

| RMM | GT | @Seliztli |

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