¿Y los héroes en la Batalla de Puebla?

 

Tropas mexicanas batallan con sus homónimas galas en el Cerro de Guadalupe (Puebla), el lienzo data de 1870.

Describir el pasado de una nación no es una tarea sencilla. Una serie de lagunas y errores abundan en nuestra “Historia oficial” alrededor de la Intervención Francesa en nuestro país, pues se dan falsos datos y se nombran héroes que nunca lo fueron.

Es el caso de la recién nombrada Ciudad Heroica Tetela de Ocampo (Puebla), a la cual no se le había reconocido su participación militar en la Batalla del 5 de Mayo y en más de 83 peleas militares a lo largo de la invasión gala a nuestro país. En cambio, sí se reconocía a Zacapoaxtla, una ciudad “que muchas veces traicionó a las fuerzas liberales y apoyo a los franceses”, de acuerdo con Venancio Armando Aguilar Patlán, etno-historiador autor de la tesis de licenciatura, “Sexto Batallón de Guardia Nacional del Estado de Puebla. La Reforma en Tetela de Ocampo, Puebla 1855-1973”.

“Los culpables del error histórico —continuó enérgico— son el Gobierno federal y estatal, porque le dieron el merito a los habitantes de Zacapoaxtla, cuando ellos habían traicionado, cuando los verdaderos participantes eran los oriundos de Tetela de Ocampo y Xochiapulco (…) (El gobierno) no lo reconoció, los ignoraba; fue un error que suscitó el general Miguel Negrete al término de la Batalla del 5 de Mayo, ya que da una declaración a distintos periódicos diciendo ‘El primer cuerpo del Ejército Mexicano en haber enfrentado a los franceses se llama el Batallón de Zacapoaxtla’.

”El militar nombró así este grupo armado, porque en aquel tiempo el cuartel de la Villa de Zacapoaxtla reunía a las fuerzas de Tetela, Xochiapulco y de los pueblitos de los alrededores, debido a que ahí continuamente los habitantes se sublevaban en contra el gobierno liberal desde la guerra de Independencia. Este pueblo era conocido por su actitud reaccionaria, ya que vivían familias españolas”, indicó el egresado de la Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia (ENAH).

Cabe destacar que como nadie hizo la aclaración del error de Negrete, al Sexto Batallón de Guardia Nacional del Estado de Puebla, el primero en reaccionar el cinco de mayo de 1862, seguía nombrándose como Zacapoaxtla.

“En Tetela se manejaba esta historia sólo como tradición oral, por lo que los habitantes al asistir a mi examen profesional en la ENAH y observar los resultados,  me pidieron que los presentara en su pueblo”, declaró el especialista, quien, en una iniciativa de la sicóloga Mariana Posadas Arrollo, buscó reconocimiento con el Gobierno estatal, de donde surgió la Asociación Civil Chicahuantepetl que ya ha formulado una solicitud de 26 hojas presentada al congreso en junio de 2010. Fue así que en diciembre se aprobó el reconocimiento de “Ciudad Heroica” a Tetela de Ocampo, así como a otras 83 localidades, para el conflicto armado de la intervención francesa y del imperio austriaco.

“Tutela de Ocampo viene participando históricamente en las batallas en Puebla”, ejemplo de ello es, durante la guerra de Reforma, que “el 12 de diciembre de1855, se sublevan las fuerzas federales del padre Francisco Ortega y García, y se organizan.

”El problema que el gobierno siga reconociendo como a Zacapoaxtla como meritorio de su participación de la batalla (es que) después coopero con los franceses, en nuestro país hay una materia que conocemos como ‘historia oficial’ que sólo informa la parte que al PRI le ha convenido en nuestro proceso histórico”, finalizó Aguilar Patlán.

RMM/ES

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