Historia del español en la FILPM

"Miguel de Cervantes y Saavedra", Juan de Jauregui

“Miguel de Cervantes y Saavedra”, Juan de Jauregui

ALEJANDRO PONCE |

 

“Yo, escritor lego, me enfrento a un libro de historia de la lengua que me atrapa como novela”. Así se expresó José María Espasa, escritor mexicano, durante la presentación del libro: Historia mínima de la lengua española, obra de Luis Fernando Lara, lingüista e investigador del Colegio de México. El evento formó parte de las actividades programadas en la edición XXXV de la Feria Internacional del Libro del Palacio de Minería.

José Espasa aseguró que a él los libros de historia no le agradan. Sin embargo, le gustan las historias no oficiales, las que cuentan la historia como si fueran espías. No dudó en decir que el trabajo de Fernando Lara cumple con dicha característica. En esta obra, planteó Escalante, “la historia se transforma en la historia de una lengua”.

Agregó que, “una de las principales virtudes que le veo al libro, es que se trata de un libro para todo aquel que habla y lee en español. No tiene la jerga de la especialización”.

El también poeta opinó que la historia para un lingüista está ligada a la voz. A diferencia del filólogo, al lingüista no le importan las correcciones gramaticales sino la forma en que se expresan los hablantes. “Al lingüista le preocupa captar el sonido, todo lo conoce de oídas”. Abundó en el hecho de que la lengua la construyen los hablantes y que por lo tanto, no se la puede hallar ni el carácter nacional, ni en un supuesto origen mítico.

El escritor mexicano apuntó que la historia de las lenguas es además la historia de las geografías. Por eso señaló que las primeras páginas de Historia mínima de la lengua española son también un pasaje a través de diversas latitudes: “realmente podemos hablar de este libro como un mapa del tesoro, porque las lenguas son nómadas, se van desplazando por los territorios”.

En ese mismo sentido explicó que la lengua española es un claro ejemplo de ese desplazamiento geográfico. Desde el español que comenzó a desarrollarse en la edad media hasta su posterior apropiación y transformación latinoamericana, nuestra lengua se ha movido constantemente. Debido a esa movilidad la lengua española se ha mezclado y enriquecido con otras lenguas.

El español, estimó Fernando Lara, emergió del crisol cultural que fue la península ibérica durante mucho tiempo. En España convivieron el árabe, el latín, el portugués, el catalán, el hebreo, el gallego e incluso el provenzal. De esta amalgama de tradiciones lingüístico-culturales brotó el español.

Posteriormente, sostuvo María Espasa, el español se transformó con la conquista. Ésta es una cuestión que los lingüistas ibéricos no han sabido apreciar lo suficiente, por ello el autor de Historia mínima de la lengua española calificó a los lingüistas españoles como lingüistas “hispanocentristas”.

El investigador del colegio de México comparó el proceso de transformación del español con el latín. Arguyó que ambas lenguas se mezclaron con otras y de esa manera se fertilizaron: “El español que viaja a América es una lengua de conquista. Pero, al mismo tiempo, es una lengua que se deja fertilizar por cientos de idiomas muy diversos entre sí”.

| RMM | AP |

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* Cortesía de la Feria Internacional del Libro del Palacio de Minería

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