Individuo, sujeto y tortura pornográfica: la violencia en el cine contemporáneo

saloLa existencia de películas gráficamente violentas no es ninguna novedad. Filmes como Saló o los 120 días de Sodoma de Passolini o Cannibal Holocaust de Deodato, ambos de la década de los setenta, son muestra clara de que no es necesaria toda la tecnología actual en cuanto a efectos especiales para retratar actos de violencia extrema que estremezcan hasta al más insensible de los espectadores.

Sin embargo, cintas como las arriba mencionadas estaban desterradas a la marginalidad y expuestas a constante censura por parte de los gobiernos de casi todos los países. El día de hoy, por el contrario, se puede observar una tendencia que no puede pasar desapercibida, a saber, la incursión de cintas gráficamente violentas en las carteleras de las salas comerciales de cine. Y esta tendencia ha puesto sobre la mesa un debate sumamente vigente, i.e., aquél sobre el papel que desempeña la violencia en las sociedades contemporáneas.

Varios críticos de cine han condenado la introducción de la violencia extrema como eje central de las películas al acuñar el término despectivo de torture porn (pornografía de tortura). Películas como Hostel y su secuela, ambas dirigidas por Eli Roth, y la saga de Saw: El juego del miedo (cuya última entrega—la séptima—acaba de estrenarse) son ejemplos paradigmáticos de este nuevo “subgénero”. No obstante y a pesar del repudio que recibieron por parte de la comunidad de críticos, ambas sagas, y otras películas con temáticas similares, han recibido gran aceptación por parte del público en general. El siguiente paso, siguiendo la lógica capitalista, sería la aceptación y la creciente inversión en cintas de este tipo por parte del mainstream de la industria del cine.

Ahora, ¿cómo incide la creciente popularidad de este tipo de filmes en nuestras sociedades? Dicen los estudiosos de la violencia que un acto de ese tipo desata dos procesos, a saber, uno de individualización y otro de subjetivación. Aquél que perpetra el acto violento es quien queda individualizado como “anormal” mientras el resto, los que lo condenan, son el “nosotros” resultante del proceso de subjetivación. Y, tomando en cuenta estos dos procesos, surge la pregunta central con respecto a la popularización del cine extremadamente violento; ¿a qué proceso es que está sujeta la sociedad contemporánea cuando está constantemente expuesta a este tipo de imágenes? Existen, creo yo, dos posiciones que deben ser revisadas a detalle para responder esta pregunta.

En primer lugar, y como ya se dijo arriba, otrora, los filmes rebosantes en sangre y vísceras estaban desterrados a los márgenes de la sociedad. De esa manera, se individualizaba al fanático de ese tipo de cine y se “subjetivizaba” al resto de la sociedad. Pareciera que lo que hoy ocurre es que la violencia se “subjetiviza”, se vuelve parte del “nosotros” y, al hacerlo, paradójicamente destruye ese “nosotros” en tanto nos hacemos conscientes de nuestra capacidad de ejercer la violencia contra nuestros semejantes (y de la suya de ejercer la violencia contra nosotros). Nos damos cuenta de los débiles que somos, y se detona un proceso de atomización de las colectividades sociales.

Como contra-argumento, muchos de los defensores de manifestaciones artísticas que incorporan a la violencia podrían afirmar que no hay nada que temer ya que, en tanto seres humanos, debemos reconocer—y abrazar—el hecho de que estas pulsiones violentas son inherentes a nuestra condición. Así, este tipo de producciones artísticas se muestran a sí mismas como adalides de la verdadera emancipación del espíritu humano; sólo transgrediendo todas las líneas es que podremos probar la verdadera libertad.
Aquí, me he limitado a enumerar dos enfoques distintos para tratar la cuestión de la violencia en las manifestaciones artísticas, particularmente en el cine. Sin embargo, no dudo que existan muchas otras maneras de problematizarlo. Al final, continua siendo decisión de cada uno de los espectadores el cómo va a internalizar—si es que lo hace—las experiencias violentas a las que está expuesto. Después de todo, el lector coincidirá conmigo al suscribir la existencia del libre albedríoen el arte, ¿o no?

RL

100 Comments

  1. Alejandro Maciel says:

    El arte es un medio de comunicación emocional y como tal, está disponible para expresar más que preferencias o tendencias de su autor. En un sentido más estricto, el arte sirve como medio para la crítica social. Es así como la incorporación de la violencia y prácticas sanguinarias PUDIERAN tener una plena justificación si, valga la redundancia, se les justifica dentro del cine, fotografía, pintura, teatro, etcétera.

    Por ello es importanto discernir cuándo se utilizan la violencia y el sexo como recursos artísticoses y crítico-social y cuándo son empleados tan sólo como un aparato mercadotécnico, entiéndase, para atraer al público a través del morbo.

    Es un debate interesante, pues en pleno siglo XXI y con una supuesta apertura ideológica de la sociedad, aún siguen los escándalos con películas altamente violentas. Tampoco se puede limitar la cuestión a un estudio de impacto comunicativo de masas, o a un análisis psicológico del mensaje. ¿ Cuestión de gustos? ¿Catarsis? ¿Perversiones? ¡Saludos!

  2. Jorge Barajas says:

    No creo que puedas poner en un mismo nivel a cintas como Saw y a Pasolini. Las motivaciones y el entorno social en el que fueron producidas son muy distintos y corresponden a diversos intereses. Creo que hay una distancia entre el cine gore que busca vender a través del morbo y una obra de arte como lo es Salò, la cual tiene todo un trasfondo tanto ideológico como de teoría estética más complejos.

  3. J. Enrique Sevilla Macip says:

    Jorge: La primera vez que yo vi Salò fue hace unos cuatro años y, si bien me incomodó un poco, no pude evitar volverla y volverla a ver para pensar todo ese transfondo ideológico y teórico del que hablas. Y dices bien que no se puede poner a un mismo nivel que Saw. Sin embargo, y de ahí surgió la idea para esta intervención, hay muchas personas que sí que suelen hacer esto último. Platicando con viejos amigos, amantes del morbo por la violencia en el cine, ellos me hablaban de Salò sólo en términos de la violencia gráfica, sin ninguna consideración por las ideas que subyacen a estos actos. Y si no consideramos esto último, y vemos en Salò sólo un festín de “depravación” sexual y sangre, ¿cuál es la diferencia con los gore contemporáneos?

    Y creo que en esto último es donde debe centrarse el debate, en la percepción del espectador, más que en las verdaderas pretensiones de los realizadores.

    ¡Saludos!

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