José Emilio y el tiempo

“Tiempo de meditar” (2012), Sabán

GONZALO ZURITA |

José Emilio Pacheco ha dejado un gran vacío entre los escritores vivos de nuestra lengua. Su muerte significa el final de una larga trayectoria por el universo de las letras. A pesar de que su obra poética no suele ser muy conocida, Pacheco dedicó gran parte de sus esfuerzos a ella. Su producción aparenta ser fragmentaria. Los poemas que hablan sobre otros poemas —como el ubérrimo “El reposo del fuego”—, o los múltiples poemas dedicados al aire o a la tierra dan una apariencia de dispersión. Sin embargo, me parece, una de sus inquietudes fundamentales fue el tiempo.

Junto a Monsiváis, Elizondo, Rulfo, Paz, y el poco afamado Chumacero, Pacheco intentó acercarse a uno de los temas más frecuentados en el siglo pasado. El suave transcurrir de las horas, fue un tema obsesivo y recurrente en su obra. Baste consultar su libro No me preguntes cómo pasa el tiempo. El autor traza no sólo en ese libro, sino en gran parte de su corpus, una profunda consternación acerca del devenir.

Las batallas en el desierto nos brinda un claro ejemplo. El lector sufre un sobresalto al ver cómo la fugacidad del tiempo pasa. De una página a otra, Mariana ha muerto; Carlos es un junior de la nueva élite mexicana. La colonia que recorría con sus faroles, el organillero, y la música han quedado atrás. Ya sólo queda su recuerdo.

En su poesía Pacheco goza retratando y contrastando la fugacidad del instante. El tiempo del hombre moderno, es un tiempo de Cronos. Intentamos medirle, aprisionarle; mas nos es imposible. He ahí la tristeza ante la vejez, el dolor de ver cómo los objetos se corrompen por las horas. Pero ante todo, son la necesidad moderna de conservar las cosas, y nuestra falta de sensibilidad por el mundo y la naturaleza, quienes producen este efecto.

En “La mosca juzga a Miss Universo”, Pacheco hace decir al insecto:

 

Si hubiera Dios no existirían los humanos.

Viven tan sólo para hostilizarnos

con su odio impotente.

 

El insecto es una parte minúscula del universo. Sin embargo, el poeta hace que su personaje nos recuerde una de las características intrínsecas del ser humano. El odio, la arrogancia con la cual sojuzgamos al resto del reino natural mediante la técnica es patente en la vida ordinaria. Tal es el veredicto expresado en “A fin de siglo”.

A través de versos perennes, Pacheco nos comparte su íntima suspicacia. Quizá pocos poemas retraten de mejor manera su presentimiento del tiempo que “Brújula”:

 

Ningún sendero quedará.

Nuestros pasos conducen siempre a la nada.

Todo lo devora

el sol que desconoce la piedad

y arrasa lo inventado por el vacío.

 

Al ser humano lo carcome el deseo de eternidad. Ésta, empero, se encuentra reservada exclusivamente para la naturaleza, la physis griega sempiterna. Pacheco hace que los senderos, invenciones humanas, sean borrados. Todo lo inventado se irá a las sombras por el paso del tiempo.

¿Para qué hacer poesía entonces? Para realizar una celebración de la belleza; como sostiene Argullol. Pacheco encuentra la belleza en el momento, en la maravilla del presente. La poesía anhelada por Pacheco no es la del nocturno perfecto; tampoco la de Homero. La creación conseguida por él es un retrato de la vida cotidiana, el alegre devenir del tiempo sobre nosotros. La anhelación de un espejo de armonía ya no corresponde al poeta moderno; todo lo contrario, busca en lo no-armónico, en la agitación normal un motivo de festejo. Pues, como sentencia, en “A quien pueda interesar”:

 

A mí sólo me importa

el testimonio

del momento que pasa

las palabras

que dicta en su fluir

el tiempo en vuelo.

La poesía que busco

es como un diario

en donde no hay proyecto ni medida.

 

Pacheco quizá se equivoque. Sus palabras y el instante resonarán en el tiempo.

| RMM | GZ |

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