José Guadalupe Posada en las Colecciones Monsiváis

posada(Mex)A decir de las grandes huellas en la historia de México, Carlos Monsiváis y José Guadalupe Posada dejaron la crónica, de la cual han echado mano las múltiples sociedades para conocer la cultura mexicana. Un diálogo  entre estos cronistas constituye la exposición José Guadalupe Posada en las Colecciones Carlos Monsiváis.

Más de 400 obras del caricaturista mexicano se exhiben en el Museo del Estanquillo/Colecciones Carlos Monsiváis. El uso del blanco y el negro, así como de los grises, caracterizan estas obras elaboradas para el taller del célebre editor mexicano Antonio Vanegas Arroyo, gran amigo de Posada.

De acuerdo con el Museo del Estanquillo, el también grabador Antonio Vanegas contó en un peregrinaje: “cada mañana, antes de venir a verme, Posada visitaba otros talleres preguntando si necesitaban algún grabado. Si ellos decían que sí, de los amplios bolsillos de su gabán extraía un buril y el resto de los materiales. Allí mismo Posada cortaba la viñeta requerida o el retrato o aquello que necesitasen. Terminado el trabajo se dirigía a la siguiente imprenta repitiendo su pregunta”.

Más allá de la catrina o las calaveras, cancioneros, cuentos infantiles, carteles de toros, de teatro o de circos, estampería religiosa y patriótica, y anuncios comerciales, Posada expresa desde una crítica intensa a la política o a la sociedad hasta la simple muestra de la cotidianidad y de la cultura mexicana.

Una serie de imágenes dividas en ocho secciones: Taller de grabado, Episodios nacionales, Ensueño y pesadilla, Viaje a través del corazón, Los vicios y errores de las pasiones, La alegría para todos, Calaveras y Santos, vírgenes y milagros, dan cuenta de los múltiples temas que retrataba el caricaturista.

Los grabados están elaborados por diversas técnicas, principalmente al buril y la litografía, consideradas las más artísticas y complicadas. En éstos, la sociedad de finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX encuentra un puente para su expresión, principalmente para ubicarse como testimonio de una época de cambios de trascendencia para la nación.

A lo largo de más de cuatro décadas, Carlos Monsiváis reunió más de mil piezas del reconocido artista; asimismo, Pablo Méndez —curador de la exposición e hijo del grabador Leopoldo Méndez—  mencionó que eligieron las más impactantes con el fin de hacer más dinámica y lúdica la muestra.

Posada y Monsiváis: diálogo de cronistas

Aguascalientes fue la cuna del representante del grabado universal. Al tiempo, este sitio dio a luz una figura cuya influencia cayó  sobre pintores como Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco y Gabriel Fernández Ledesma; así como  en Leopoldo Méndez, Pablo O’Higgins, José Chávez Morado, Alberto Beltrán y Alfredo Zalce. Todos, pintores, grabadores o caricaturistas del siglo XXI emanados, la mayoría, del Taller de la Gráfica Popular.

La insoslayable actividad política en el marco de la guerra de reforma y de la dictadura porfirista, llevó al dibujante a participar en la revista El Jocote y en los periódicos La Patria, El Ahuizote, El hijo del Ahuizote y Argos, por nombrar algunos. Ilustraciones satíricas ocuparon espacio en los periódicos para aflorar el movimiento revolucionario con base en la libre expresión contra el gobierno porfirista.

Las diferencias de clase, la pobreza y el protagonismo de la cotidianidad (los corridos, los novenarios, los juegos de salón, etcétera) describen un panorama, a manera de cronicón involuntario, de vacíos y de frutos, de blanco y de negro. Reproduce escenas, a la par, reproduce su denuncia ante la existencia de las mismas.

Nacido en 1852, en el barrio de San Marcos, hijo de Germán Posada y Petra Aguilar, Posada vivió la puesta en marcha del estado liberal y los principios de la Constitución de 1857, cuyas bases fueron reformadas en la revolución de 1910. Para entonces la Catrina lo estaba rondando; lo visitó en 1913, pues una infección intestinal lo arrojó a las manos de la postrera en una vecindad ubicada en Tepito.

La exposición José Guadalupe Posada en las Colecciones Carlos Monsiváis no sólo se motiva por homenajear al prócer, sino también en honra al periodista, ensayista y crítico social, Carlos Monsiváis. Escritor de discursos agudos, picantes y mordaces; cronista de un México en procesos de transformaciones, cual Posada en los combates de su tiempo con el grabado, Monsiváis enfrentó los problemas sociales con la palabra, dejando de igual modo un  legado en la historia mexicana.

AM/RL

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