“La muerte de Sócrates” de Omar Arriaga Garcés

“La muerte de Sócrates” (2013), Omar Arriaga Garcés

ROGELIO LAGUNA |

La muerte de Sócrates de Omar Arriaga Garcés, texto ganador del Premio de Ensayo “María Zambrano” 2013, organizado por la Secretaría de Cultura de Michoacán, ha sido puesto a disposición del público a inicios de este año bajo el sello de la referida secretaría en coedición con Conaculta. Es el primer libro del periodista y escritor que hasta entonces sólo había llegado al público a través de periódicos, revistas y sitios electrónicos.

No se trata, como podría deducirse del título, de un estudio histórico o filosófico sobre la muerte del rechoncho filósofo ateniense contemporáneo de Pericles y Aristófanes. Sino que, a la usanza de Nietzsche y de sus seguidores, la figura de Sócrates para Arriaga Garcés es un pretexto para abordar la delicada y difusa frontera entre la razón y el arte. Un límite difícil de asir y donde es fácil perderse, como bien lo mostraron los artistas románticos, a quienes el autor explora con dedicado ahínco.

Sócrates, como después lo harán los poetas románticos, lleva a la razón a juicio y muestra su ambigüedad, pues el pensador es por igual el padre de la ética y maestro de Platón, fuerte impulsor de la luminosa racionalidad griega, que un hombre inspirado por las musas, enamorado de Fedro, y triunfador en la historia aún frente a su mayor exceso: no haber escrito.

El autor de este libro nos dice: “Es Sócrates arquetipo del héroe occidental, un Prometeo que se incendia a sí mismo para mostrar el camino, destruyendo ese monstrum in animo para fundar la razón, malinterpretada por nosotros como sólo una virtud humana, porque la razón, como en el mito de Atenea y Palas, lo primero que ataca es a su doble, su imagen en el espejo; es decir: a sí misma”.

Para Omar Arriaga hay algo irreductible en la figura de Sócrates, acaso una contradicción de la propia razón, que se habría extendido por siglos en la cultura de Occidente, orgullosa portadora de la “racionalidad griega”. Esta contradicción exacerbada después en la modernidad nos mostraría que Occidente, como Sócrates tiene muchas caras, y muchas maneras de vivir la racionalidad, aunque en nuestra sociedad de masas sean algunas vías prácticas y teóricas las que predominan. Un momento culminante de ese nudo civilizatorio se habría alcanzado con los poetas románticos, quienes usan la razón pero llevándola a la locura, desvirtuando el lenguaje para decir poesía y no la verdad. El autor nos dice: “volvamos la mirada hacia el otro rostro mítico de la modernidad: el del pensador ateniense que forjó el método dialéctico, entablando mediante éste una batalla contra las fuerzas sobrenaturales de la religión poética de la Grecia antigua, misma que ha llegado hasta nosotros, reactualizándose en la obra de autores contemporáneos para demostrarnos que si la modernidad no ha traído el pasado hacia este presente, en cambio, nuestro contexto abarca no sólo el pasado inmediato, y que la batalla que libra el Occidente es, de facto, la que se había iniciado con la irrupción de Sócrates.”

Son los poetas modernos, en especial los románticos, nos dice Arriaga, quienes se percataron de la situación múltiple del ser humano, así como el rompimiento de la realidad y el tiempo a través de la poesía y el mito, era un antropocentrismo que quería ser efectivo y no sólo abstracto. Los románticos, en la propuesta de nuestro autor, son el camino para hacer una reflexión filosófica y literaria sobre los arquetipos del mundo occidental, que a pesar de decirse racional no deja sostenerse en mitos antiguos y personajes de ficción que se dan el lujo de proclamarse verdaderos. Para sostener sus tesis el autor aprovecha distintas miradas que se incorporan a la suya para ahondar en esta vía reflexiva. La buena documentación del texto, que bien podría considerarse erudito, se ve reflejada en el libro a través de las referencias constantes a Nietzsche, Benedetto, Calasso, García Ponce y Octavio Paz. También existen múltiples citas de Salvador Elizondo y Bataille, de Cioran, Baudelaire, Goethe y Novalis. Corpus de autores y obras ya bien conocidas por los amantes del arte a través de los cuáles se construye el andamiaje de esta obra que está a mitad de camino entre la reflexión filosófica, la teoría literaria y el estudio de los mitos.

Esto último es lo que tal vez sea la aportación más interesante del autor de este libro, quien poniendo a Calasso como principal apoyo hermenéutico realiza una lectura del nudo socrático occidental en términos del mito. Así, nos dice que olvidar la mitología y sus vías es errar y desconocer la verdadera trama del delirio, del arte y del lenguaje, escribe: “Peca hacia la mitología quien no confiere su justa dimensión a esta forma de conocimiento que, para los griegos, se consuma a través de la posesión misma. Por último, peca hacia la mitología quien ignora las potencias que en ella se esconden, las cuales son inclusive capaces de modificar la realidad al ser susceptibles de cambiar la percepción, no sólo del que habla sino, asimismo, del que escucha las palabras y el que contempla los gestos. Pecar hacia la mitología implica, además, el desconocimiento de un orden dispuesto para las cosas: el cosmos al que nos hemos referido precedentemente”.

Con esto el autor nos recuerda que hasta que no comprendamos el carácter mítico de la civilización occidental y sus principales héroes, de entre los cuáles Sócrates sea tal vez el primero y el más influyente, seremos incapaces de comprender que la razón enmascara una multiplicidad de rostros y de vías, e incluso aquella libertad majestuosa que buscaban los poetas modernos —“ansia de infinito”, lo llama Benedetto— que tenía que ver más con las pasiones que con la razón, pero ¿qué hay detrás de la razón si no es el exceso, o al menos cierto tipo de exceso?

| RMM | RL | @RogelioLaguna |

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