La persistencia del libro

"Libro de libros" ©Vladimir Kush

Con el crecimiento de la tecnología también incrementa la incertidumbre. Las sociedades internacionales se encuentran inmersas en el cambio constante, en la inestabilidad, en lo efímero. Hoy por hoy, la inestabilidad creciente es provocada por las apariciones y desapariciones de técnicas, aparatos, formatos, usos, costumbres.

El remplazo del disco de vinilo por el casete, después por el CD hasta llegar al formato digital, es un ejemplo tangible de los nuevos órdenes establecidos por el avance tecnológico. No sólo cambia el soporte, sino también el contenido, el medio para reproducirlos, incluso la experiencia obtenida es diferente. No fue lo mismo escuchar a Madonna en un Walkman que en un iPod, pues involucra  toda una nueva forma se aproximarse al producto.

En circunstancias similares se encuentra, hoy día, el libro. La digitalización de bibliotecas en todo el mundo, junto con la creciente demanda por parte de los cibernautas, ha provocado el cambio de percepción ante la literatura. La tradicional experiencia obtenida al leer en papel se desdibuja con el arribo del PDF,  el documento Word y el Google Book. Tiendas como Amazon ofrecen acervos completos en formato digital, disponibles para leerse desde el ordenador, el iPod, la iPad o los reproductores e-book.

Si en el mundo la venta de libros era inestable, con estas (no tan) nuevas tecnologías el mercado ha revolucionado. Librerías enteras cerrando, otras cambiando sus productos, tratando de adaptarse a las modas alimentadas y consumidas por la sociedad. El sentimiento general se resume en incertidumbre: ¿podrá, algún día, desaparecer el libro?

En una charla amistosa, el escritor Umberto Eco y el guionista de cine Jean-Claude Carrière, discuten temas vinculados a la importancia histórica-social del libro. Nadie acabará con los libros condensa dos visiones similares, ambas desmintiendo la idea apocalíptica que presupone la extinción de las grandes bibliotecas y el triunfo del ordenador sobre el papel. En puntos convergentes, los dos protagonistas del ensayo, dirigido por Jean Philippe de Tonnac, auguran el cambio de formato del libro, pero no la desaparición de su esencia.

El papel de la memoria

“El libro es como la cuchara, el martillo, la rueda, las tijeras. Una vez se han inventado, no se puede hacer nada mejor”. Con tal afirmación, Umberto Eco se muestra escéptico a la idea del libro de papel como un objeto en decadencia, casi de museo. Al contrario, resalta su viveza, la importancia todavía sostenida a nivel académico, en la interacción social, en las comunidades científicas, en el mercado, en la industria del ocio.

Jean-Claude Carrière coincide con los argumentos del escritor italiano. Desde hace miles de años, desde iniciada la habilidad lectora, los seres humanos siguen leyendo, no importa el formato en que se presente el texto. Piedra, papiro, papel o computadora, la literatura sigue siendo la misma y sigue implicando casi las mismas habilidades, aunque sumando otras distintas.

Siempre se ha ido en busca de la comodidad y la seguridad de las palabras. Por ello, con la invención del papel, existieron posibilidades mejores para preservar los textos. Decenas de escribanos se dedicaron a transcribir copias inmensas de los escritos más importantes de la época. Artesanos encuadernaban los cientos de hojas, decoraban las pastas, adornaban las hojas con toda la delicadeza del amor al libro. A la par, vieron la luz grandes bibliotecas repletas de material histórico, de letras perdurables, testigos de una época.

Todavía las bibliotecas no han muerto. Pese a la enorme pérdida de material provocado por incendios y catástrofes naturales, otras causadas por la estupidez humana, se preservan textos milenarios, otros incunables, como mencionan Eco y Carrière, hijos de la revolución de Gutenberg. Es decir, se sigue conservando el concepto del libro como extensión de la memoria, pero también como pieza de consulta asequible, donde cohabitan las más grandes ideas de tiempos memoriables.

Celulosa vs Pixel

Los amantes de los libros, sus creadores y distribuidores parecen enloquecer ante las voces modernistas que auguran la muerte del libro impreso para dar entrada al dominio del libro digitalizado. Nada de papel, sólo pantallas luminosas emitiendo destellos simulando la grafía del abecedario.

Umberto Eco y Jean-Claude Carrière no distan de esa opinión, aunque con reservas de por medio. Pudiera ser que en un futuro, no tan lejano, los lectores prefieran el uso de los ordenadores para consultar material bibliográfico, pero ello no implica en absoluto la desaparición de las versiones impresas.

Basta estudiar el ejemplo de México, país tercermundista —¿quién dice que en vías de desarrollo?— , donde sólo 40 millones de personas, aproximadamente, tienen acceso a servicios de internet. De ese sector, habría que separar a aquellos con el hábito de consumos literarios en línea de aquellos que sólo usan la web para interacciones no académicas.

En resumen, otros 80 millones de personas no tienen acceso al tan moderno “libro digital”. Por supuesto, de este enorme sector habría que separar a los analfabetas, a los infantes no lectores y a los que sí saben y pueden leer, pero no lo hacen por cualquier otra razón, bien por desinterés o a falta de educación, dinero o material bibliotecario.

El resultado no es nada alentador. Según la última encuesta de la UNESCO, el 56.4 % de los mexicanos leen libros, en especial novelas y con temas de superación personal. Sin embargo, el mismo estudio arroja que sólo el 2% mantiene un hábito lector.

Otros estudios arrojan datos interesantes. Por ejemplo, en 2005, la Encuesta Nacional de Prácticas y Consumos Culturales, realizada por el Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes (Conaculta), concluyó que el 37% de los mexicanos encuestados nunca había estado en una librería. También, el 69% de los entrevistados declararon no leer por falta de tiempo.

Reafirmando lo anterior, la Encuesta Nacional de Ingresos y Gastos en los Hogares (ENIGH), dice que los mexicanos leen un promedio de 4.6 libros por año: 64.7% comprados, 16.5 % prestados por un amigo o familiar, 10.2% regalados, 5.4% prestados por una biblioteca y 1% fotocopiados.

Según las cifras, hay circunstancias evidentes: más de la mitad de los mexicanos no leen, salvo por obligación escolar o laboral. Pocos lo hacen como un hábito, por placer. No existe cultura lectora en el país, mucho menos interés por comprar libros. Los datos demuestran que la mayoría del material bibliográfico es comprado, aunque no se especifica si en formato impreso o digital, pero es fácil suponer el predominio del libro en celulosa y no en pixeles.

Todavía, en buena parte del mundo, los libros impresos representan parte significativa del porcentaje de material consultado. También es cierto el incremento de descargas en formato digital, desde sitios como Amazon o Google Books, que actualmente cuenta con un acervo de más de 12 millones de libros disponibles y gratuitos a través de su portal.

Umberto Eco, en sus declaraciones dentro de Nadie acabará con los libros, detalla las comodidades y conveniencias del libro impreso: facilidad para transportarse, economía de espacio, no necesita de baterías para utilizarse ni cansa la vista, como sí lo hacen los ordenadores y gadgets con pantallas LED.

Revolución digital, en proceso

“Si la memoria visual y sonora del siglo XX, se pierde con un apagón eléctrico, o de cualquier otra manera, siempre nos quedará el libro”, opina Jean-Claude Carrière. Las sociedades mundiales todavía no están cien por ciento preparadas para transitar a la digitalidad. Mientras tanto, el libro impreso seguirá siendo privilegiado, aunque enfrente la competencia de los formatos digitales.

La transición tecnológica es un proceso. Para poder pasar del texto impreso al texto electrónico, se requieren de tres principales factores: acceso al medio, conocimiento de las herramientas y lenguajes de la tecnología, y el interés por utilizar el espacio con dichas intenciones.

Internet todavía es visto, por millones de usuarios en el mundo, como un espacio de interacción amistosa, como la oportunidad para ver videos, descargar música, imágenes, pornografía o simplemente para enviar y recibir correos electrónicos. No existe, prácticamente, el fomento del uso de la red como esfera de conocimiento. El libro on-line, del que habla Eco, es todavía una realidad lejana para el grueso de la población mundial.

Faltarán todavía algunos años para que la descarga de libros a través de internet se convierta en asunto cotidiano. Faltarán muchos más para que el libro impreso pierda su valor y su importancia para millones de individuos. Las bibliotecas, salvo por las adversidades del clima o el fuego, no peligran a causa de los nuevos formatos. Los amantes de los libros podremos seguir comprándolos, coleccionándolos en un librero. La memoria de la tinta se opone con fuerza a la censura tecnológica.

RMM/AM

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