Lados B

 

Lados B: Narrativa de alto riesgo 2013, varios autores, Nitro Press

Lados B: Narrativa de alto riesgo 2013, varios autores, Nitro Press

PABLO RAMÍREZ MORALES |

En la presentación de la antología Lados B Narrativa de alto riesgo 2013, editada por Nitro Press, se argumenta que estamos ante piezas narrativas (cuentos y fragmentos de novela) que no encontraremos en las grandes editoriales, o editoriales comerciales, o editoriales cómo se les quiera llamar en contraposición a las editoriales “independientes”. Lo que está implícito en dicha afirmación, es que son relatos que van más allá de los cánones literarios, en los cuales sus autores intentan formas arriesgadas de hacer literatura.

En principio suena seductor, pues nadie puede negar que muchas editoriales grandes tienen aversión al riesgo, aunque creo que es una discusión muy amplia y sobre la que ya, también, se ha generado una serie de lugares comunes y argumentos fáciles, que ahora no abordaré. Sin embargo, después de leer los dos tomos de la antología (hombres y mujeres), me pregunto si las editoriales grandes; es decir, las que publican a los grandes escritores de nuestro tiempo, prescinden de estos relatos, no éstos en particular sino de este tipo, no porque sean atípicos sino porque simplemente son malos.

Como dije, no entraré en la discusión de los parámetros de las editoriales comerciales, porque además no los conozco. Creo, por el contrario, que sí vale la pena reflexionar con calma por qué los cuentos de Lados B no conectan con el lector, al menos no con el lector común, con aquél que toma un libro como un entretenimiento enriquecedor e inteligente, pero que no conoce (ni le interesa) de vanguardias, corrientes o cánones.

Cada pieza podría ser objeto de análisis y éste no es el lugar para hacerlo, para eso están los talleristas y los editores con los que cada autor debió, supongo, haber trabajado sus textos antes de publicarlos. Sin embargo, veo algunas características más o menos comunes a todos ellos.

Encuentro escritores, hombres y mujeres, que tienen muchas cosas que decir. Tienen una visión particular del mundo, tienen ganas de compartirlo y lo hacen de forma catártica, pero desordenada. Detectan historias en los pliegues de las sociedades y en los recovecos de la conciencia humana. Podríamos decir que, en el fondo, en sustancia, el riesgo y la innovación de estos autores está en la materia prima de sus relatos. Los personajes son atípicos y los autores poco condescendientes con ellos. Si hay que llevarlos al abismo, los llevan y los avientan. Asimismo, los autores de esta antología manipulan el lenguaje, como herramienta de trabajo, de forma audaz pues, en general, se salen del tono neutro y correcto, para imprimirle personalidad a sus voces, lo cual se agradece.

Sin embargo, lo anterior no es suficiente para lograr buenos relatos y buena literatura. Pareciera que estos autores se olvidan de algo fundamental: el buen narrador no sólo es el que escribe bien, sino el que es capaz de tejer tramas; ahí es donde se aprecia el oficio del cuentacuentos. Y es allí donde fallan los relatos de Lados B: en la construcción de las historias. La mayoría de los textos carecen de un planteamiento claro, de una situación que genere un conflicto para los personajes, de un nudo que complique su situación y los obligue a tomar decisiones, para llegar a un desenlace, habiendo resuelto o no el conflicto. En general, los relatos no están construidos a partir de una sucesión de hechos o actos, que rompan con el estado de las cosas y obliguen a los personajes a confrontarse con su entorno, con su lugar en el universo, con su más íntima y pura humanidad, que los mueva a actuar según sus intereses o sus valores o cualquier otro criterio de acción y, en su caso, sufrir una transformación.

En general el lector se encontrará con una serie de recuentos o resúmenes de hechos, vistos a distancia y que se cuentan como uno platica de su fin de semana con los compañeros de trabajo: sí, el viernes hice esto, el sábado lo otro y el domingo tal otra cosa, sí, estuvo bien, estuvo mal, estoy desvelado. Pero sin clavarse en las entrañas de los conflictos, sin profundizar en las motivaciones, sin siquiera dibujar escenarios medianamente visibles.

Además de esta deficiencia narrativa, hay dos tipos de relatos en la antología: por un lado, aquéllos en que los personajes reflexionan en abstracto sobre cualquier tema, pero sin una ubicación espacio-temporal que le permita al lector ver, conocer, empatizar con quien nos está hablando. Ejemplos de este tipo, ¡Bravo Althusser! de Sidharta Ochoa, Inter/Cambio de Mayra Luna, los fragmentos de Motel Bates de Yussel Dardon, o el fragmento de la novela Desgajar la belleza de Eusebio Ruvalcaba. De este último texto, se reproducen cuatro capítulos, catorce páginas, en las que lo único que sabemos es que el personaje masculino, hombre casado, sabe tanto de música clásica y seduce a una mujer casada a través de palabrería cursi y culturosa, alrededor de tal o cual pieza de tal o cual compositor; pero no sucede absolutamente nada más que invite al lector a buscar la novela completa.

Por otro lado, están los relatos contados fragmentariamente, es decir, a través de piezas sueltas, de diversos párrafos o fragmentos en que el espacio, el tiempo y el narrador son diferentes, para dejarle al lector la tarea de llenar los huecos. Ejemplos de esta otra variante, El señor de los perros de Alberto Chimal, Avatar blues de Monchie Horror o Nudos corredizos de Paulina Pérez Santaella. En principio, dejar que el lector colme lagunas es una manera de obligarlo a dialogar con el texto; sin embargo, cuando el relato se basa en eso, cuando son más los elementos que tiene que poner el lector que los que le proporciona el escritor, me parece (llámenlo prejuicio si quieren) un truco para esconder la falta de oficio y la incapacidad para hilar hechos de manera articulada y coherente.

Mi objeción con los relatos de Lados B no parte de una defensa a ultranza de las estructuras tradicionales o de una defensa del statu quo; simplemente creo que lo revolucionario, lo innovador, lo arriesgado en la literatura debe estar en el fondo de las historias, en los conflictos que se plantean, en las confrontaciones éticas, morales y sociales a las que se sometan los personajes, los escenarios extremos, en el manejo del lenguaje, en la búsqueda de una voz personalísima y potente. Pero creo que esos riesgos deben correrse dentro del marco estructural, flexible pero más o menos bien definido, del relato.

A ella se han ceñido los grandes maestros del relato, como Cortázar y Carver, de quienes todo cuentista, incluyendo a los antologados en Lados B, tiene mucho que aprender. O bien, si prefieren tomar un modelo más vanguardista, ahí está un escritor osado y audaz como Carlos Velázquez. Con su Biblia vaquera y su Marrana negra de la literatura rosa, Carlos juega con la estructura, la malea y la moldea a su gusto, pero nunca la rompe. Y no se trata de respetar la forma por respetarla, sino de hacerlo porque ella ha demostrado ser el mejor camino para darle redondez, unidad e intensidad narrativa que requiere el relato breve para conectar con el lector.

Desafortunadamente, la narrativa de alto riesgo compilada en Lados B, no logra enganchar a un lector promedio, pues no contiene eso que genera el sueño vívido y continuo de la ficción, a que se refiere John Gardner. Quizás otros escritores puedan apreciar las virtudes estilísticas de estos relatos, pero finalmente el objetivo final de un escritor no son sus colegas (a menos que lo que busque sea el aplauso del gremio), sino los lectores pues, como se dice en la presentación del volumen, la literatura es un tango entre dos: escritor y lector.

RMM|PRM

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