Las modificaciones ortográficas de la RAE

RAEEl anuncio de la próxima publicación de la edición corregida del Manual de la Nueva gramática de la lengua de la Real Academia Española ha suscitado serias discusiones en torno a las sorpresivas modificaciones efectuadas.

La presentación, llevada a cabo el 11 de mayo de 2010 en el paraninfo de la Universidad de Salamanca, estuvo a cargo del coordinador de la RAE, Salvador Gutiérrez Ordóñez, quien señaló que “la nueva ortografía busca ser razonada y exhaustiva, pero simple y legible, con especial énfasis en la coherencia con los nuevos usos que le dan los hablantes”. El propio Gutiérrez Ordóñez está consciente de que los cambios, a los que no quiso calificar como reformas, podrían ser resistidos por algunos hablantes del español.

Por otro lado, Salvador Gutiérrez, director de la obra, señaló que es “amplia, razonada, explícita y sumamente clara”. En su opinión, “cualquier persona que tenga una formación de bachillerato o de enseñanza media podrá comprenderla puesto que la ciencia ortográfica necesitaba una obra que desarrollara el porqué de las diferentes normas y reglas. Esos principios no estaban explicados”.

En palabras de Gutiérrez, la Real Academia Española “estaba obligada a hacer una introducción científica, razonada y reflexiva de la ortografía; era una reclamación histórica y creemos que la Academia ha cumplido con este deber”. Sin embargo, el académico asegura estar conciente de que no es fácil cambiar las normas ortográficas, por más simples que sean las modificaciones. “Las veintidós Academias han mantenido intensos debates a lo largo de los años, antes de lograr un consenso”.

Según destaca el sitio web de la RAE, el trabajo de revisión ortográfico es “panhispánico no sólo en su génesis, elaboración y aprobación, sino también en sus contenidos […] en todo momento se tienen en cuenta las relaciones e influencias de las lenguas indígenas en la escritura de muchas palabras del español. En la elaboración de normas orientadoras para el aprendizaje, se toman en consideración de manera especial los problemas del seseo y del yeísmo, fenómenos que afectan a la mayoría de los hispanohablantes, pero que eran descuidados por las ortografías del pasado”.

Los cambios que sobresalen entre las modificaciones establecidas en el Manual son:

• Comúnmente, algunas letras del alfabeto reciben nombres dependiendo del país donde se citen. Es el caso de la “v”, que puede denominarse “b corta”, “uve”, “b labiodental” o “b baja”. Pues bien, la RAE ha uniformado dando un solo nombre a cada letra. Así, desde ahora la “y” será la “ye”, la “v” será “uve” y la “w” será “doble uve”. Por ello la “b” y la “i” dejarán sus apelativos de “be larga” e “i latina” para ser, simplemente, “be” e “i”.

• La Ch y la Ll dejan de ser letras del alfabeto. Ambas eran consideradas letras en sí mismas desde el siglo XIX, pero el nuevo manual las suprime formalmente, con lo que el alfabeto queda fijo en 27 letras.

• Se acaban los acentos diacríticos. La expresión: “Iré sólo si tu quieres” (del adverbio condicionante solamente) significa que mi asistencia depende de tu decisión. “Iré solo si tú quieres” (de la palabra soledad) significa que si lo deseas, no llevaré a nadie. Desde ahora no será obligatorio marcar la diferencia mediante una tilde, por lo que el “solo” de soledad se fusionará con el “sólo” de condición.

La RAE ha determinado que estos casos son tan infrecuentes y fáciles de dirimir mediante el contexto de la frase que no vale la pena establecer una regla para diferenciarla. El mismo concepto se aplica a los demostrativos (este/éste), aunque la RAE especifica que, en todos los casos, será opción de cada persona usar o no las tildes.

• “Ex”, “anti” y pro” ya no estarán separadas de la palabra que los precede. Tradicionalmente “ex”, “anti” y pro” eran consideradas preposiciones y debían escribirse separadas de la palabra que las precedía, pero ahora son considerados como prefijos, por lo que se escribirán unidos a la base léxica si afectan a una sola palabra, como el caso de “exesposa” y “provida”.

• La palabra Guión ya no lleva tilde. Algunas palabras se consideraban monosílabas cuando su pronunciación formaba hiatos o diptongos. Es el caso de guión, truhán, huí o fié. Desde ahora todas estas palabras no llevarán tilde, considerándose una falta su utilización. Lo curioso es que estas palabras son agudas con terminación en n/s o vocal, por lo que no tildarlas contradice una norma superior.

• Adiós a la tilde de la letra “o” entre números. Tradicionalmente, la “o” se tildaba al posicionarse entre números para evitar que se confundiera con el número cero. Sin embargo, la RAE ha juzgado que el uso extendido de computadores evita esta confusión, por lo que se acaba el 1 ó 2 para dar espacio al 1 o 2.

• Ganan la “C” y la “K”. Desaparece la “Q” de los términos extranjeros. Anteriormente, la “q” se usaba para escribir palabras como Qatar, Iraq o Quórum. Sin embargo la “k”, heredada de los visigodos, actualmente se considera española en plenitud, por lo que la “q” sólo se reservará esa pronunciación frente a la “ue” e “ui”, como en “queso” o “quiso”. Los países “Iraq” (escrito así en España) y “Qatar”, ahora se escribirán “Irak” y “Catar”. En adelante, serán Catar, Irak y Cuórum. Insistir en las grafías anteriores se considerará tan extranjerismo, como New York.

No obstante, las reacciones ante tales modificaciones reduccionistas de la gramática han sido motivo de repudio al ser consideradas como actos que atentan contra la naturaleza de la lengua española y su riqueza expresiva.

AM

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