Las quimeras del ahorcamiento

“La muerte de Gérard de Nerval, calle del farol viejo” (1855), Gustave Doré

 

¿Sabéis por qué en mi pecho late tanto furor

y mi cabeza indómita hincha un cuello obediente?

Porque soy de la estirpe de Anteo descendiente

y devuelvo las flechas contra el dios vencedor.

De Nerval / Anteros

 

Hay quienes para morir se hacen flotar del cuello. Muchos dedos crispados han denunciado este hecho; colgados de una higuera, como si el árbol de pronto hubiese decidido ofrecernos el fruto de la muerte, o de un trebejo de madera construido para enmarcar los cuerpos como pinturas hechas por la infame mano de un artista que sueña, inspirado, un putrefacto péndulo de carne.

Hay unos pocos que sintiendo la cuerda como un puño invisible que los aprieta y quiebra piensan que (imagine usted que es uno de ellos, de esos elegidos que después de muertos flotan sobre el suelo, inspirando terror y admiración) cuando el último sol negro finalmente se consuma, clausurado el último umbral del universo, apagadas todas las calderas estelares y todos los dioses acallados por fin, el último poeta tendrá razón. Todo estará liado con la cuerda de la absoluta calma anterior al demiurgo palabra luz, como suspendido en un sueño, como si el cuerpo del universo paralizado por la horca hubiese quedado suspendido junto a ellos.

Esa enorme sombra que hiela el cuerpo, paraliza el espíritu y finalmente lo aniquila, es la muerte. Ante la muerte el hombre busca refugio desesperadamente; dioses y verdades no acuden en su auxilio. Su único refugio lo haya adentro, un consuelo metafísico dentro de su espíritu. Pero no todas las muertes son iguales. Lo mismo podríamos decir de las vidas.

Aguijoneemos un poco la imaginación, pensemos en un mundo kafkiano —es decir, creado al estilo Kafka— donde existiese una oficina burocrática dedicada a mantener el registro de las muertes en todo el mundo. Luego habría que pensar una sección especial dedicada a cada tipo de muerte: por ahorcamiento, decapitación, degüello… Un mundo de enajenación estadística donde todas las muertes padecen el mismo rasero, y se apilan en fosas burocráticas. Quedarían reducidas a una muerte numérica en el ataúd del archivero. Para consultar dichos documentos habría que hacer infinidad de solicitudes. Desquiciado, el interesado sería forzado al suicidio, tendría acceso finalmente.

Pero no son las cantidades, sino las cualidades las que nos interesan. Las muertes que por su sola significación prefiguran una vida tortuosa e impasible. Hay vidas que sólo se entienden bajo la luminaria de su muerte. Hay caminos ya transitados que se repiten históricamente. Tipos especiales como modelos de barro primordial que se viven más de una vez, en raras ocasiones; espíritus que viven su época como si esta se agitara entera dentro de ellos.

Los caprichos de la historia han permitido que sólo el recuerdo de algunos hombres persista con toda su fuerza, como si no hubiesen partido.

No es que la historia ―o alguien― decida guardar el recuerdo de unos pocos y sumir en el olvido a los demás; pero son pocos quienes se arraigan en alguna tradición —o la tradición en ellos— y persisten justamente porque su muerte es un acontecimiento que continúa su vida. O porque en su muerte no hay final, no se disuelven en la nada. Al contrario, sus rasgos más toscos se adelgazan, y los más finos se acentúan; estatuas en un templo que el tiempo no desmorona.

Hay muertes, aun más, hay hombres cuya muerte se recuerda, se revive por un antiguo arte de alquimia que ahora tiene otros nombres. Se les infunde, por un instante, el flujo vital de nuestra sangre para (re)vivir su muerte; son casos especiales, para ello son necesarias ciertas sales primordiales, jeroglíficos y símbolos arcanos: poesía, en otras palabras (le suplico al lector no iniciado en estos misterios se apresure a conseguir algún tomo de poemas, para iniciarse en la materia). Nada de hermético hay en esto, todo lo contrario: es un arte de la transparencia, de la claridad, pues estas almas no han dejado rastro de oscuridad en su obra, y es por esta obra que los recordamos; por ella se salvan de un silencio ignominioso, como Gérard de Nerval.

En una carta que Antonin Artaud dirigió al señor Georges Lebreton ―fechada el 7 de marzo de 1946— menciona que “para colgarse a la madrugada del farol de una calle turbia ―la más turbia que pudo encontrar— hay que tener torsiones del corazón como primacías de la inmanencia del colgamiento. Hay que tener unas ansias como las ansias con que Gérard de Nerval supo construir increíbles músicas, que valen, no por la melodía o la música, sino por el tono bajo, quiero decir, la caverna baja, abdominal, de un corazón azotado”.

De Nerval, quien se ahorcara del poste de un farol en la calle Vieille Lanterne (“Viejo Farol”), tal vez pensó que al ser bañado por el primer sol ya se habrían transformado poste, farol y hombre en algo más: un árbol metálico muy esbelto que extendía su fruto negro y duro, frío como la última luz de una noche lunar. Este hombre padecía las pulsiones de la caverna onda y húmeda del espíritu, de ese útero húmedo que engendra las primeras ensoñaciones de un mundo todavía no formado, donde proliferaron hasta ser paridas en medio de tremendos dolores del espíritu y cuerpo.

Esas ensoñaciones, primero vagos estertores en el fondo de su ser, se convirtieron en quimeras, “seres inauditos y nuevos que no tienen del todo el mismo sentido y que tampoco traducen célebres angustias, sino las fúnebres de Gérard Nerval, colgado una mañana y nada más”, como escribió Artaud en la carta arriba señalada.

Sus quimeras tienen nombre: Mirto, Horus, Anteros, Délfica, Ártemis, por mencionar algunas. Imposible entender esas criaturas como producto de una cultura erudita; son el fruto de un espíritu azotado por mares interiores. Sus viajes por Egipto, Siria, Rodas, Chipre y Constantinopla fecundaron al poeta con la simiente de lo fantástico, lo real, lo imaginario y lo onírico hasta mezclarse con su espíritu.

El ahorcamiento de De Nerval ―un suicidio que nada tiene de pecado— es como la muerte de una estrella por fin oscurecida. Convertida en un cuerpo oscuro, vaciada de todo su esplendor luminoso. Como una caverna abdominal que violentamente se vuelve hacia afuera, dejó expuestos “los tumores de una peste o las terribles y negras huellas de la garganta de un suicidado”, en palabras de Artaud. Esos bubones invisibles eran parte del universo quimérico del escritor; en el grabado de Gustave Doré un De Nerval incorpóreo es arrastrado a ese universo que por fin se ha visto liberado de la carne de su creador.

De Nerval —desdichado que ha cruzado dos veces las aguas del Aquerón— dejó su cuerpo como un alfiler sujeto en un punto —la cabeza— por unos dedos invisibles; su laberintico cráneo manó las últimas palabras y secreciones antes de abrirse al infinito, dislocado de los pilares del cuerpo después del último temblor del espíritu. Poeta —dice Artaud— que desde los ecos cavernosos de la oscuridad ascendió hacia la claridad, desde “la nada de ese abismo de horror del que la conciencia siempre está volviendo en sí para nacer en algo en lo cual existir”.

Las Quimeras de De Nerval: “insólitas y maravillosas máquinas de conciencia”, que elogiara Artaud en su carta, vuelven de la nada; y De Nerval montado en la grupa de los versos conquistado el vacío, pues no pudiendo ser devorado por el olvido, por la nada, quedó atado por el cuello a una calle oscura; entre este mundo y el de sus quiméricas creaciones ―sonetos ― de catorce pies, oscuros ojos y más de dos cabezas.

¿Qué hálito negro del espíritu impulsó a De Nerval a colgarse de un farol una madrugada? No lo sabremos nunca. Quizá escarbó muy profundo pretendiendo llegar al otro extremo de su caverna y se extravió dentro de sí mismo. Como dice Artaud, “su suicidio no puede ser otra cosa que una protesta contra una empresa, (…) creo que esta es la del tiempo, (…) por el lado en que la vida presente se subleva contra la presencia de la eternidad”.

Hay formas de morir que son heroicas, sublimes y divinas; ahí están Héctor, Sócrates y Plotino. Pero también las hay sobre-naturales, como la de De Nerval que se rebela contra la naturaleza en un grito hondo y gutural que debía desgarrar la eternidad. Grito que el universo ahogó con una cuerda una madrugada en una calla bajo un viejo farol.

De Nerval, el Amalecita, el hijo de Anteros ―el anti Eros―, quien cruzó los ríos impetuosos del espíritu acusó los pecados de Dios. Para entenderlo hay que revivir sus quimeras, leerlas con la voz que mana del vientre del cuerpo. Para obtener a cambio los sonidos mágicos de sus quimeras ―quién sabe, tal vez el propio De Nerval venga montado sobre ellas.

| RMM | GTV | @Seliztli |

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