Leonora Carrington y su mundo surrealista

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La muerte, postrera y ecuánime, tocó la ventana de la pintora y escultora Leonora Carrington, quien alguna vez dijo: “No me gustaría morir de ninguna manera, pero si debo hacerlo algún día, que sea a los 500 años y por evaporación lenta”.

La última exponente del surrealismo, germinado en la Francia de 1924 donde la importancia magnánima erigía en el racionalismo, consideraba no haber elegido su ingreso a este movimiento. Asimismo, junto con André Breton, Tristán Tzara, Giorgio de Chirico, Salvador Dalí, Max Ernst, entre otros, pintó, esculpió, escribió y póstumamente vivió como surrealista en un país por ella denominado del mismo modo.

“En este país sí me voy a divertir, este es un país surrealista”, dijo al ver un hombre desnudo a las afueras de la Alameda Central, según recordó su amiga Silvia Sacal.

La pintora inglesa arribó a México en 1942, tras la persecución nazi contra su esposo Max Ernst, pintor, escultor y fotógrafo alemán, también partícipe del movimiento dadaísta. Su acercamiento a los 20 años con quien para entonces tenía 45 marcó su vida, pues se escapó de su casa a Florencia para estudiar arte —rechazando con ello su presentación ante la corte inglesa— y vivir con quien además conoció casado.

La técnica del frotage, característica del movimiento surrealista, la aproximó al judío alemán, al que liberó de las manos nazis en 1939. Pero un año después, nuevamente recluido, le generó un colapso nervioso que la llevó a una clínica psiquiátrica de Santander.

Escapó del sanatorio para pedir asilo en la Embajada de México en Portugal. Posteriormente partió a Nueva York, en 1941, desde donde cruzó a México gracias al apoyo del poeta Renato Leduc con quien tuvo que mantener un matrimonio por dos años. Después se casó con Imre Weisz, fotógrafo húngaro, teniendo con él a sus dos hijos Pablo y Gabriel Weisz.

El mundo multidimensional de los sueños y la imaginación enraizaron en ella la corriente surrealista, cuya vértebra era el rechazo a la familia, a los tabúes del progreso, a participar en la industria cultural; así como una afirmación de la independencia del espíritu, acotando que éste tenía un valor supremo.

La herencia de Carrington

La herencia de Leonora Carrington, quien el pasado 6 de abril cumplió los 94 años, son la vida y obras que encarnan la búsqueda de la liberación definitiva del arte, bajo ese mundo multidimensional que iluminado por el triunfo de la voluntad se rebeló.

La escultora, —según Dawn Ades, especialista en surrealismo, señala el diario Reforma—, “era una pensadora, escritora y pintora que creó su propio imaginario”. Un imaginario de iconografía influida por las creencias y prácticas mágicas de diversas culturas y épocas.

Ejemplo de ello son las obras principalmente influidas por la cultura mexicana como La casa del miedo (1938). No obstante, todas tuvieron los elementos del sueño y de la libertad que apasionaban a la artista, bajo esta línea La trompetilla acústica (1950), Une chemise de nuit de flanelle (1951), la obra de teatro La invención del mole (1960), El cuento mexicano (1970), fueron parte de las producciones literarias alternadas con la creación escultórica y pictórica.

Modelo de sus múltiples actividades artísticas es la escultura Cocodrilo mostrada en Paseo de la Reforma, Rostro águila, Dama y zorro, Barca con chango, Stallion o Paseo a caballo, presentadas en la exposición Escultura reciente. Leonora Carrington 94 aniversario, además de la obra pictórica Y entonces vimos a la hija del Minotauro (1953) y El mundo mágico de los mayas (1963), mural pintado para el Museo Nacional de Antropología de la Ciudad de México y que en estos días se encuentra en el Museo de Antropología de Chiapas.

Al tiempo, durante la segunda sesión de subasta de arte latinoamericano llevada acabo en Nueva York hace unos días, la obra El árbol de la vida, de la escritora, fue vendida a un comprador vía telefónica en 578 mil 500 dólares.

La aventura surrealista fue su vida y se plasmó en su obra. El arte y ella eran la misma cosa. “A una la visitan los sueños que vienen no se sabe de dónde. Yo creo que mis cuadros son un poco cosas que soñé o pesadillas que tuve”, le dijo a Elena Poniatowska en 1957.

Después del largo sueño de la muerte

Se rumora que a raíz de la muerte de la última exponente del surrealismo, éste encontró su final, desaparición o “apagón”. No obstante, como escribió Adolfo Castañón en el Alfabeto de las esfinges, el surrealismo ha sido “devorado por la universidad, la publicidad y la industria cultural (…) pasa a la fase de la ocultación en México”.

¿Qué tanto la muerte de Leonora Carrington cerró el último cajón del surrealismo? El movimiento surrealista  ha sido devorado, pero los artistas de la actualidad son quienes han de dar vida a otras manifestaciones nacidas del corazón del arte, en su concepción más única e inalienable.

AM/RL

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