Lo real maravilloso en la geopolítica del siglo XXI

"The Sun" (2000), Yue Minjun

“The Sun” (2000), Yue Minjun

EDUARDO SUÁREZ |

Heinz Dieterich Steffan (Alemania, 1943), destacado sociólogo, analista político, investigador de Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana (UAM) y actual director de la Casa de China, platicó con la revista MilMesetas acerca del encuentro y acuerdos celebrados entre China y México, el panorama político y económica en Latinoamérica y el paradigma científico del Socialismo del siglo XXI.

**

El incesante crecimiento de la comunidad, productos, tecnología y cultura china en México nos llevó a platicar con el Dr. Heinz Dieterich en el corazón de la UAM Xochimilco.

La Casa de China en la Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana (UAM), campus Xochimilco, nació hace un año y medio tras la celebración de un congreso mundial del World Association for Political Economy (WAPE) con la intención de enseñar chino mandarín y ser un puente de intercambio estudiantil entre Europa, Oriente e Hispanoamérica.

Tras la espera en este trozo de China, el gran tigre asiático, en la capital mexicana, arribó el doctor, quien ofreciendo disculpas por enredarse en el tráfico de Tepito en la Ciudad de México se dispuso a ofrecer un té y mostrar las instalaciones de la Casa China, mientras explicaba claramente los beneficios del choque cultural que comienza a crecer en México.

MM: China es ya un monstruo económico oriental, al grado que países como EUA dependen económicamente de ella, ¿qué impacto traerá la creciente relación entre México y China?

Dr. Dieterich: El impacto fundamental será en la visión del mundo que tiene el ciudadano mexicano, porque en este momento es exclusivamente occidental y estadounidense. El despegue de Asia con su centro de China es un fenómeno bienvenido, pues ayudará a que el mexicano entienda que el mundo ya es multipolar y que si quiere vivir adecuadamente en el siglo XXI debe de entender que hay varios centros económicos y culturales en el mundo.

Si las instituciones educativas y mediáticas de China logran presentar en México una imagen objetiva del despegue de los Tigres Asiáticos, entonces esto va a venir a enriquecer la cultura del mexicano.

MM: México es pobre en educación y se conoce poco la cultura china, pese a que es parte de nuestra mezcla racial y cultural. ¿Qué ofrece culturalmente China?

Dr. Dieterich: El deterioro del nivel educativo en México ha sido trágico. El ciudadano común y los estudiantes universitarios tiene un déficit de conocimiento y de cultura general que es espantoso, y la falta de conocimiento es parte de ese panorama de carencias general.

Lo notable de la cultura china es que es diferente a la cultura occidental en un aspecto fundamental: en occidente se tiene una fuerte formación  del modelo científico de razonamiento de causa y efecto, es decir, un asimilamiento de los fenómenos de la realidad para entender la relación entre dos situaciones. La cultura china tiene una oscilación constante entre la realidad que uno vive y el mundo de las ideas, el mundo ficticio; como hoy tenemos el mundo virtual podríamos formularlo de esa forma.

El occidente se reintegra después en la visión del mundo virtual, el cual siempre ha existido y plasmado en las bellas artes, como el teatro, el cine y la literatura donde el realismo se mezcla con elementos surrealistas, místicos, mágicos, es decir, toda la cultura china el ying y el yang, lo social constantemente entre lo real y lo irreal; lo que García Márquez o Carpentier llamaban lo real maravilloso. Esta conexión es mucho más fuerte en China que en Occidente y diría que volver a integrar esa dimensión es un enriquecimiento de las personas, porque en el fondo hemos logrado constituir lo que los griegos llamaron la física y la metafísica, lo tangible y lo no tangible. Ese es uno de los aportes fundamentales de China.

MM: ¿Cuál es la clave para entender este gran milagro económico en China?

Dr. Dieterich: Hay varios factores: la revolución de 1949 con Mao Ze Tung se estableció una gama amplia de mejoramiento social y educación, esa fue la pre-condición para que cambie el modelo de Mao a Mao Zedong en el 78. Hay un nivel cultural de los trabajadores y personas adecuados para generar el gran despegue industrial.

Poeng entendió que el gobierno de Mao de basarse sólo en las fuerzas productivas a llegado a su límite y se necesita una apertura y ciertas reformas,aplica el modelo que Lenin aplicó en 1922 que se llamaba la “nueva política económica” que es la inducción de mecanismos de mercados pero controlado por el Estado, es decir, un capitalismo de desarrollo en el cual el Estado tiene fuerte liderazgo.

El tercer elemento es la calidad del Estado Chino, pese a todas las mentiras que se dicen en la prensa occidental, es un Estado comparativamente poco corrupto con otros gobiernos del mundo.

El partido comunista china ha logrado implementar el principio de meritocracia, es decir, el partido ha logrado seleccionar lideres de alto nivel y capacidad de conducción que ha logrado una continuidad en la conducción cautelosa planeada en el proceso de evolución de la economía que no encuentras en otros gobiernos, pues en cada cambio de gobierno es una ruptura política anterior no tienes continuidad en el desarrollo.

Los mexicanos tienen la visión torpe de los productos chinos. Diversos productos son fabricados en México; el mercado es un problema del gobierno mexicano no del gobierno chino es un problema nacional no de china.

MM: ¿Cómo se estructura el gobierno chino?

Dr. Dieterich: Es un sistema de economía de mercado, economía mixta en la cual el Estado tiene mucha influencia, pues casi la mitad de la economía es estatal o pública; el Estado tiene mucha más fuerza que en  un sistema capitalista privado u occidental. En EUA el gobierno de Obama tiene que hacer lo que le dictan las trasnacionales y eso es diferente en China: el gobierno tiene la autonomía de declarar una política que afecte a una trasnacional, como la prohibición de la moneda fraudulenta llamada bitcoin.

MM: Se le pregunta acerca de su artículo que publicó en la revista digital la Aporrea, donde aborda el tema del Socialismo del siglo XXI. ¿Es una utopía aplicable?

Dr. Dieterich: Es un modelo científico que es practicable pero como cada cambio fuerte en la sociedad requiere voluntad política y el momento histórico en que se pueda hacer, es difícil. Por ejemplo, el cambio de sistema capitalismo a socialismo en Rusia en 1917 de feudalismo a capitalismo son transformación es que se requieren ciertas coyunturas históricas. Por ello no es una utopía sino un paradigma científico.

MM: ¿ En Latinoamérica, con bloques económicos como Mercosur y las nuevas políticas de países como Uruguay, Venezuela o Cuba, podría darse este paradigma científico?

Dr. Dieterich: En Cuba tenías un socialismo del Siglo XX como había en la URSS y no funciona. Ahora Cuba está copiando el modelo de China y no sabemos si funcione; en otros países construyen un gobierno socialdemócrata. Brasil, Ecuador, Argentina, viven algo similar a lo que en la Europa de la posguerra: una economía de mercado de corazón como dice Lula, donde la economía tiene que servir para todos, entonces no puedes ser neoliberal, pues las élites se llevan todo. Tiene que dar a los capitalistas y la gente también. Así nace el Estado de bienestar y ese modelo avanza con el general Cárdenas en México, el general Perón en Argentina, sin embargo con los neoliberales se acaba y gracias a Hugo Chávez que vuelve a aparece en la agenda de la clase política latinoamericana con visión de una economía mixta y un gobierno con responsabilidad social.

La precondición sería que América latina se unifique porque EUA no permitirá un socialismo del Siglo XXI, si ni siquiera permite la democracia, por ejemplo en Honduras o México volvieron a robar el derecho al voto. Si América Latina tuviera la fuerza tendrías que tener gobierno popular: unido el pueblo con el gobierno.

MM: ¿En México no hay opción diferente de gobierno? ¿López Obrador fue la posibilidad y se complicó por la vecindad con EUA?

Dr. Dieterich: No puedo opinar sobre México porque no soy mexicano, pero desde la Independencia en 1821 en América Latina sólo ha tenido dos vías económicas: la que desembocó en el Neoliberalismo o lo que se llamaba el Estado de bienestar, es decir, un gobierno que trata de ser nacionalista e intenta repartir la riqueza nacional y esto apareció en diferentes épocas en el continente con diferentes nombres; y en países de Oriente porque el problema del subdesarrollo lo tienes en todo el mundo. Todos los gobiernos de posguerra en Egipto en Siria nacen del colonialismo de coroneles jóvenes que se organizan para cambiar su país.

| RMM | ES |

_______________

Heinz Dieterich Steffan  fue asesor gubernamental del gobierno bolivariano de Venezuela hasta el 2007 y es reconocido por su postura de izquierda en diversos medios alternativos como Rebelión, Aporrea, La Fogata, Kaos en la red y periódicos de tiraje nacional. Ha escrito y colaborado en más de 30 libros como el Fin del capitalismo global, Neoliberalismo, reforma y revolución en América Latina, Los Vencedores: una ironía de la historia (junto con Noam Chomsky), Cuba después de Fidel, entre otros.

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