Panorámica / Luz negra

“Selbstporträt mit Leica” (1931), Ilse Bing

“Selbstporträt mit Leica” (1931), Ilse Bing

GRACIELA S. SILVA |

Mujer nómada y con un fuerte interés por las artes plásticas, Ilse Bing dedicó a la fotografía el impulso que se otorga a un pasatiempo. Comenzó por enfocarse en la rama experimental, pero posteriormente continuó con el fotoperiodismo, la fotografía arquitectónica, publicitaria y de modas.

“Selbstporträt mit Leica” (1931) es un autorretrato realizado a partir del reflejo de un espejo. Es éste el primero de una serie que llevaría a la artista a capturar en un ángulo similar y con la misma cámara distintas etapas de su vida. Sin embargo, esté es el más conocido, no sólo de la serie, sino incluso de toda su obra creativa.

Nacida en Alemania y con ascendencia judía, Ilse Bing tuvo la afortunada decisión de abandonar su país natal para trasladarse a París en la década de los años treinta. Fue ahí donde obtuvo su más fuerte influencia por parte de los amigos con los que se relacionó, entre los que se encuentran André Kertész y Emmanuel Sougez, ambos imbuidos en la corriente filosófica sobre la lente, más que en la estética.

En Francia se relacionó con distintas revistas como colaboradora, Le Monde Illustre, Harper’s Bazaar y Vogue fueron las más importantes. También fue en este país en donde realizó su primera exposición colectiva, su trabajo formó parte de la primera exhibición de fotografía moderna realizada en el Museo del Louvre.

Con una década turbulenta que terminaba para Europa y —sobre todo— para los judíos en ella, la fotógrafa decidió mudar nuevamente su residencia, y probar otro continente. Fue Nueva York la urbe que volvió a inspirarla y donde continuó su etapa creativa en blanco y negro, y posteriormente en color.

En su obra, Bing dio un fuerte peso a la técnica y a la importancia de la óptica. La Leica, cámara germana de imponente precisión, fue el mayor recuerdo de Alemania que llevó consigo. En “Selbstporträt mit Leica” da importancia a ese aparato que seguiría con ella por décadas.

La protagonista de la escena se encuentra de frente a un espejo, el cual fotografía para formar parte del encuadre. A un costado se sitúa un segundo espejo que permite otro ángulo de su rostro y de este modo brinda tridimensionalidad. Ella mira de frente al espejo en la imagen de la izquierda, incluso cuando en la derecha pareciera que se asoma a la mirilla de la cámara.

El foco de la imagen, sin embargo, no está puesto en el primer reflejo, que se observa con menos nitidez que el resto del encuadre por estar más cercano. La parte más nítida de la imagen está en el segundo espejo, que se refleja en el primero.

Posiblemente la velocidad del disparador sea lenta, pues requiere del trípode que sostiene a la Leica; tal vez su necesidad responda a la elección de esa postura, razón por la que opta también por el cable disparador que permite que su mano izquierda se aleje del encuadre y sólo sea perceptible como una figura que se sitúa fuera de foco detrás del tripié.

La fuente de iluminación proviene de la esquina superior derecha de la imagen y es suficiente para iluminar el encuadre. Al ser reflejada por los espejos, que hacen rebotar la luz natural, su fuerza inicial se magnifica.

Realizada durante su época en Francia y en los primeros años de su afición fotográfica, Ilse Bing desdobla en un único encuadre el espacio entero de una habitación, triplica la dirección de la luz y pone a juicio la linealidad de la perspectiva y la soberanía de un punto de vista. Todo lo que se ve, parece decirnos, existe en función de una cara no vista: los otros ángulos, lo que escapa al ojo del observador.

| RMM | GSS | Luz negra | @Versalisima |

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