Max Ernst: surrealimo superrealista

Max Ernst_Collage2(Mex) En el Museo Nacional de Arte se presenta la exposición Max Ernst: Una semana de bondad, collage de imágenes surrealistas dedicados a la crítica de la sociedad europea del siglo XIX.

Una semana de bondad o los siete elementos capitales es un título sugerente que invita al espectador a conocer el significado irónico de estos términos antitéticos. La obra del artista alemán, que también adquirió las nacionalidades francesa y estadounidense, se presenta como una novela de folletín, género popular en el siglo XIX que se caracteriza por la entrega periódica de episodios y cuyos temas giran en torno a lo sentimental y a lo simple.

 La técnica utilizada es el collage, recortes obtenidos de libros ilustrados, fragmentos superpuestos  que contienen vasta cantidad de información en la que cada obra puede ser leída por sí misma como símbolo o emblema.

La novela gráfica está conformada por 184 collages distribuidos en cinco libros, cada uno de ellos asignado a un diferente color, según el día de la semana y su correspondiente elemento.  Por ejemplo, el libro de agua (lunes), el libro de fuego (martes) y el libro amarillo (viernes, sábado y domingo).

Cada collage mantiene una representación crítica a las sociedades burguesas en Europa. Así, la representación de la risa de un gallo alude a la venganza y retrata a esa persona que acorrala, rapta o asesina. O bien, el hombre burgués es presentado como un ser antropomorfo y cabeza de móai, símbolo emblemático de la isla de Pascua. Max Ernst_Collage4

 Tan sólo con esta descripción  es posible percatarse de la complejidad que enmarca el contenido de la novela, cuyo relato está dado por las imágenes y muy pocas palabras.

Desde el inicio del recorrido, el espectador se enfrenta al reto de decodificar el mensaje, uno de los primeros collages presenta, en forma de insignia, una silueta antropomorfa con cara de león, investida de rango militar, mirando un cuadro de alguien que parece ser Bonaparte.  A su vez, el soldado sostiene otro felino, quizá una  leona.

 La obra está cargada de múltiples simbolismo, que pueden ser interpretados en diferentes planos: el león visto como símbolo de poder, el poder militar y el poder subyugado al totalitarismo -representado por la figura de Napoleón-. Asimismo, circunscribe figuras felinas que representan tanto el poder militar como el eclesiástico y la dominación sexual.Max Ernst_Collage1

Es la visión superrealista de Max Ernst, descrita desde todos los tonos posibles: el de la ironía, la parodia, la tragedia, la sátira y el encantamiento. Con sus herramientas, ilustraciones, cola y tijeras, recorta y ensambla su mundo, recreando toda una novela, o como diría Milan Kundera, “la trampa en la que se ha convertido el mundo”.

Una semana de bondad o los siete pecados capitales se presenta en el Museo Nacional de Arte de la Ciudad de México y permanecerá abierta hasta el 18 de octubre de 2010.

AM/RL

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