México: rico en lenguas maternas

 

Tomada de AZ Revista de Educación y Cultura

Tomada de AZ Revista de Educación y Cultura

EDUARDO SUÁREZ  |

 “Partir, transitar y llegar a otros lugares no genera la desaparición de la lengua sino su transformación. Las lenguas, como las culturas, jamás han existido de manera ‘químicamente pura’, siempre son producto de encuentros, cruces, intercambios con los otros diferentes, en ese sentido, siempre se han transformado, jamás han existido sin mutaciones”.

Carlos Román Hernández, Lic. en Antropología Social por la UAM, también especialista en derechos humanos con experiencia en radio y comunicación indígena, charló con nosotros y nos aclaró algunas cuestiones relacionadas con la riqueza lingüística de nuestro país.

México no sólo es un paraíso geográfico colmado de riquezas naturales sino también culturales. Prueba de ello es que actualmente se hablan 68 lenguas indígenas con 364 variantes dialectales en todo el país. Según la tercera edición de la publicación del Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas (INALI): Mapa de La diversidad cultural de México: Lenguas indígenas nacionales, las lenguas más utilizadas son el Náhuatl (22.9%), el Maya (11.5%), el Mixteco (7.1%), el Tzetzal (6.9%), el Zapoteco (6.3%) y el Tzotzil (6.2%).

“Creo que reconocer, no sólo desde el Estado sino desde el nosotros, las diferencias en todos los campos en general y en la lengua en particular, es una práctica imperiosa y necesaria para poder hablar de una multiculturalidad no decretada por el Estado, sino vivida en las cotidianidades”, explicó el antropólogo.

Sin embargo, de los 16 millones de indígenas que censó el INEGI en 2010,  sólo 6 millones 913 mil 362 hablaban alguna lengua indígena. Esto significa que en 2010 sólo el 6.6% de la población nacional usaba algún idioma autóctono. Los números continúan a la baja.

Actualmente, 64 variantes lingüísticas están en peligro debido a que menos de 100 personas las practican. Entre ellas se encuentran el Kiliwa en Baja California, el Chocholteco en Oaxaca, el Náhuatl en Veracruz, el Diapaneca en Tabasco, el Mochó en Chiapas, entre otras como dos variantes del otomí, cuatro del mixteco y cinco del zapoteco.

Al respecto, Román Hernández juzgó que son “los propios hablantes los que en realidad dan un cuidado a sus propias lenguas, pues fuera de políticas anquilosadas son ellos quienes ponen en uso y movimiento las lenguas: las revitalizan, las transforman, las entrecruzan; es decir, las viven. Y como todo aspecto de la vida es menester el cuidado”.

Los estados que tienen el mayor número de hablantes de lenguas indígenas son Chiapas, Oaxaca, Veracruz, Puebla, Yucatán y Guerrero. Tan sólo en los primeros cuatro están más del 50% de los hablantes de alguna lengua prehispánica.

El también activista y defensor de los derechos humanos valoró positivamente el esfuerzo de la comunidad guerrerense Emperador Cuauhtémoc. Este pueblo respeta y valora las lenguas, ya que su escuela primaria imparte el me phaa (tlapaneco), el naa saavi (mixteco), el náhuatl, el inglés y el español, “además, allá usan el lenguaje digital en red, la llamada poli-alfabetización”, agregó el especialista.

Por otra parte, Román Hernández detalló cómo fue que México se sumó a la conmemoración del Día Internacional de la Lengua Materna, proclamado por la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura (UNESCO) en 1999. La jornada se celebra cada 21 de febrero y promueve “la preservación y protección de todos los idiomas que emplean los pueblos del mundo”, puntualizó el experto.

Para finalizar, Carlos Román indicó que “desde el Estado podrá haber políticas, instituciones y días dedicados a la lengua; pero, a la luz de los hechos, no podemos esperar mucho. Los hablantes y los escuchas somos los verdaderos protagonistas del reconocimiento de los otros como diferentes, mas no como desiguales”.

RMM|ES|@eduardo_surez

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