Moctezuma II: destino de una época

moctezuma(Mex) En el marco de los festejos del Bicentenario de la Independencia y el Centenario de la Revolución mexicana, el Museo del Templo Mayor presenta la exposición Moctezuma II: Tiempo y destino de un gobernante, después de una exitosa gira en Londres. En ella se presenta un doble recorrido en el que se documenta la vida y gobierno del antepenúltimo tlatoani (“el que habla”), y a la par se exponen algunos artículos y vestigios arqueológicos que dan cuenta de ciertos rasgos culturales de Tenochtitlán durante el mandato de Moctezuma Xocoyotzin.

Moctezuma II provino de un grupo consanguíneo numeroso y noble, establecido a mediados del siglo XIV, cuando en 1375 Acamapichtli asumió el cargo de tlatoani de la Triple Alianza (conformada por las ciudades de Tenochtitlán, Texcoco y Tacuba). A partir de ese momento, el linaje noble de aquella familia habría de ser reafirmado por la consecutiva selección de sus miembros para detentar el poder.

Su turno llegó en 1502, cuando el Consejo de Ancianos (integrado por los cuatro representantes de los cuatro barrios o calpullis mexicas) deliberó a su favor para ocupar el alto cargo; tomando en cuenta su historial guerrero, pues no se debe olvidar que Moctezuma ocupaba en aquel entonces uno de los dos máximos cargos de la milicia azteca. Aquel momento en el que se le colocó la Diadema Real –que puede observarse en el Museo-, la nariguera de turquesa  y su capa de algodón azul con piedras preciosas, marcó la llegada de una época distinta en el pueblo. La de la grandeza y la destrucción.

Durante casi veinte años, la labor de Moctezuma Xocoyotzin fue la de conservar y reforzar el poder de la civilización mexica y por supuesto, mantener su hegemonía a nivel de Mesoamérica y mantener sometidos mediante la guerra y el tributo a los pueblos circundantes. Acción que, por un breve periodo de tiempo, dio resultados positivos. Pero la suerte estaba echada y los españoles conquistadores ya estaban en camino a la Gran Tenochtitlán y aprovecharían las enemistades y rencores de los sometidos para apoderarse del territorio y las riquezas americanas.

Desde aquel momento, la imagen de Moctezuma ha sido manchada por críticas y reproches, por una supuesta debilidad ante el enemigo y por haber dado entrada a los europeos que cambiarían el rumbo de los indígenas para la eternidad, haciéndolos vagar por un sendero sombrío sin identidad y sin nombre.

 A través de la exposición y rememorando las páginas de un pasado adolorido y mancillado, se encuentra  explicaciones del México del siglo XXI. Conociendo los pasajes de las batallas libradas, el sistema económico y la organización gubernamental de los pueblos prehispánicos, se revela ante la mirada moderna –y occidentalizada- la gloria de aquellas épocas en las que la avaricia y la tiranía ni siquiera se vislumbraban a los lejos, ni a mil años luz.

Sólo deteniéndose en esas viejas memorias, inciertas y mágicas, es posible comprender el proceso histórico que culmina –mas no termina- en el día de hoy, en las celebraciones del bicentenario de la independencia y el centenario de la revolución. Resulta por demás interesante preguntarse: ¿quién es el mexicano de hoy? ¿Se conserva todavía al menos un poco de la grandeza de nuestras raíces culturales? ¿O acaso pertenecemos a una nueva raza híbrida de occidentales? ¿Quiénes fuimos y en qué nos hemos convertido?

Y las respuestas no serán fácilmente encontradas, tal vez el momento no llegará a pisar nuestros terrenos. Lo cuestionaba Octavio Paz en su obra maestra, El laberinto de la soledad, y ha sido tema de debate y confrontaciones ideológicas por parte de historiadores y filósofos, antropólogos y sociólogos. Ergo, vale la pena aventurarse a revisar las memorias de México, un país que pasó de la gloria al sometimiento y el rezago. 

Durante el resto del 2010 y hasta enero del 2011, el Museo del Templo Mayor ofrece ésta colección de artículos históricos que retratan sólo un poco de la cultura mexica y que contextualizan el mandato de Moctezuma, hombre firme y enérgico, pero humano y sensible a la importancia de sus dioses, a la labor “artística” de retratar su presente y de adorar a la naturaleza como agradecimiento por la vida.

 Moctezuma II: Tiempo y destino de un gobernante, se puede visitar  de martes a domingo en un horario de 9 a 17 hrs. Abierto al público en general.

 Museo del Templo Mayor (Centro Histórico de la Ciudad de México)

(55) 55 42 49 43

Costo del boleto: $ 51 pesos (mx)

Entrada libre a estudiantes y profesores con credencial vigente, niños menores de 13 años, jubilados y adultos mayores de 60 años.

AM/RL

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