Mujeres, alcatraces sufragistas

“La revolución de los alcatraces” (México, 2012), Luciana Kaplan, CCC / FOPROCINE

“La revolución de los alcatraces” (México, 2012), Luciana Kaplan, CCC / FOPROCINE

ZOILA JUÁREZ |

Ciudad de México.-“Oaxaca tiene 570 municipios, 418 se rigen por el sistema de usos y costumbres, en casi 100 de ellos la palabra MUJER no existe en los catálogos de las comunidades”, esa es la narrativa actual de féminas oaxaqueñas, como Eufrosina Cruz Mendoza, originaria de Santa María Quiegolani, donde el alcatraz simboliza a la dama.

Eufrosina se convirtió en la primera mujer en presidir el Congreso de Oaxaca en 2010, dos años antes se le negara el derecho a votar y ser votada para presidir su municipio por el hecho de ser mujer y profesionista (contadora pública); prohibición tristemente notoria en el acta de la Asamblea local.

“Algunos señores me empezaron a insultar, en zapoteco los insultos son muy fuertes. Y fue la primera vez que lloré de impotencia y de coraje pero también juré algo: que eso no se iba a quedar así”, prometió la admiradora de líderes como Benito Juárez y Barack Obama (este último, impulsor de la Ley para Prevenir la Violencia contra las Mujeres con enfoque a miembros de tribus indígenas en EU, medida que —se estima—ha disminuido un 64% la violencia de género).

Desde lo más recóndito de la Sierra Sur, la indígena zapoteca pretende “generar igualdad entre hombres y mujeres en su comunidad, cuando adquiere ese uso de conciencia de libertad, regresa a su entorno sumergido en la marginación y el velo de la ignorancia; nadie cuestiona o aporta. Si una sociedad comienza a reclamar, se vuelve problema”, piensa la presidenta de la Comisión de Asuntos Indígenas, segura de que mejorar la educación en comunidades indígenas es la clave del mejoramiento de las circunstancias para las mujeres.

Presenciamos una revolución social donde las mujeres asumen una parte activa que nuestro cine quiere representar.

Alcatraces

Ópera prima de Luciana Kaplan, La revolución de los alcatraces es un largometraje que muestra la lucha personal de Eufrosina en contra de lo que llama “abusos y costumbres” en los municipios de muchos pueblos autóctonos.

Eufrosina —quien inspiró también el libro Alas de Maguey de Marta Gómez-Rodulfo—, se ha convertido en un referente para el despertar de muchas indígenas en extrema pobreza, mujeres representadas por ella en el congreso local, primero, y en la Cámara de Diputados posteriormente.

“¿Qué significa ser mujer indígena, por qué Eufrosina?”, preguntamos en Revista MilMesetas a Kaplan durante la reciente “Muestra CCC 2013”organizada en la Cineteca Nacional: “No todo es blanco y negro”, contestó Kaplan. “Eufrosina se cuestiona y llama a cuestionarse a todos, no sólo a las mujeres. Hay que preguntarse si los que están en el pueblo quieren cambiar, más allá de cómo ve uno a la mujer indígena y sus circunstancias. Atreverse a cambiar, sobre todo en este país que requiere gente que cuestione y actúe.”

”Eufrosina es una persona que lucha todo el tiempo y que no se da por vencida, que trabaja las 24 horas del día por hacer cambios, que da toda su alma para lograrlo, es un ejemplo para todas las personas. Ella me dejó amistad y respeto, entendimiento, pues es una persona diferente, recta, no olvida de donde viene, tiene una fuerza que logró muchos cambios que nadie había hecho”, explicó mientras los cinéfilos disfrutaban de remodeladas instalaciones.

A Kaplan, una segunda parte, la historia de Eufrosina en el poder, la sigue y le interesa pero se enfoca más el tema del renacer como luchadora social, como proceso y transformación, y cree que las contradicciones y dudas hacen la trama de su cinta más atrayente.

Sufragar

Un estudio de la Universidad Autónoma de Chapingo, retomado por teleSUR Prensa Latina, detalló que en los confines de la pluriculturalidad, 10% de los 57 millones de mujeres en México somos indígenas, el 57% trabaja y percibe menos de dos salarios mínimos, y en el agro, las campesinas laboran 31 horas semanales más que los hombres.

Las Sufragistas es la lucha de las mexicanas por el poder político, un documental que Ana Cruz presentó durante la 9ª Muestra de Cine y TV —complemento al detalle ocular de Kaplan desde la óptica del CCC—, otro enfoque de Eufrosina una vez ganadas las elecciones en Quiegolani, cuando ya “respiraba chingón”. La batalla personal de la indígena zapoteca ejemplifica la situación del voto y el empoderamiento femenino a lo largo de un siglo.

El filme entrevista a personajes de la talla de Verónica Michelle Bachelet, Directora Ejecutiva de ONU Mujeres, quien profetiza: “si hay más mujeres, mejora la calidad de la política”. Además, Ana recopila los testimonios de mexicanas defensoras del sufragio como alternativa a la toma de decisiones y muestra un mundo enriquecido en perspectiva de género donde –en palabras de la ex gobernadora Dulce María Sauri–, “el sufragio fue el principio de la larga lucha, porque fue el primer derecho político fundamental que ejercimos las mujeres”.

| RMM | CCMM | ZJ |

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