“Naranja mecánica”, pandillas juveniles

“Naranja Mecánica”, 1971, fotograma / © Warner Bros

Controlar a los jóvenes rebeldes y violentos siempre ha sido un asunto que ha preocupado al Estado. En Naranja mecánica (A Clockwork Orange, novela por Anthony Burgess, 1962), el conflicto central es provocado por el gobierno, pues busca acabar con los conflictos sociales mediante el Tratamiento de Ludovico, el cual promete imposibilitar a la persona a ejercer violencia y/o hacer daño a su prójimo.

La película (Stanley Kubrick, 1971) es reconocida como uno de los 100 filmes más violentos dentro de la historia del cine por Neil Fulwood en su libro One hundred violent films that changed cinema (Cien filmes violentos que cambiaron la historia).

La película causa tal interpretación y reacción en el público juvenil de Inglaterra que “hubieron una serie de incidentes de ultravionlencia en Gran Bretaña” [i] de los cuales Neil Fulwood comenta: “El primero fue un ataque y violación a una chica del condado de Lancashire. La pandilla de jóvenes la atacó mientras cantaban I’m singing in the rain” [ii]. El propio Anthony Burgess explica el contexto de su novela:

«Lynne (la primera esposa de Burgess) y yo tuvimos que volver a casa, junto con un nuevo fenómeno británico: la violencia de las pandillas adolescentes. En nuestras salidas, entre 1957 y 1958, vimos niños de peluche en los bares de café. Estos eran jóvenes vestidos muy elegantemente con trajes de neo-eduardinos, con botas de suela y peinados muy distintivos. Parecían demasiado elegantes para ser demasiado violentos, fueron ampliando el temor a los débiles de corazón. Ellos fueron la personificación del Zeitgeist [muestra el clima intelectual y cultural de una época] la cual parecía expresar una decepción brutal con el declive de Gran Bretaña, después de la guerra, como una potencia mundial, evocando la era Edwardian con el estilo de su ropa. Ellos habían sido originalmente llamados Edwardian Strutters. Ahora en 1960 que estaban siendo reemplazados por los hooligans vestidos con ropa informal. Los Mods y los Rockers se llamaban así porque el primer grupo llevaba ropa moderna y los otros tenían motocicletas, como rockeros [iii].»

La presencia, a mediados de la década de 1950, de diferentes grupos juveniles que confluían en una estructura de pandilla de barrio o ciudad (los famosos mods y su contraparte los rockers), fueron sin duda una de las inspiraciones de Burgess para escribir Naranja mecánica. Burgess retrata en su libro un fenómeno de banda juvenil, tan estructurado que ofrece una identidad y constituye para la juventud un estilo, como el de los reggaetoneros en nuestra Ciudad de México, que ya se constituyen como “tribu urbana”.

Naranja mecánica organiza los objetos de Alex y sus drugos con actividades y valores que producen y organizan una identidad de grupo. Burgess compone un lenguaje con formas de expresión que sólo caracterizan al grupo de Alex (Beethoven o la música clásica, como referente musical). La música, es un elemento central en la mayoría de los estilos juveniles [iv] y la ropa (nótese el estilo reggaetonero o emo).

En 1961 Burgess pasa parte del verano en la Rusia Soviética, donde observa los problemas que tenían con la juventud turbulenta, no muy diferente a los que nos enfrentamos hoy en México (véase caso “Reggaetoneros en Metro Chabacano”). El Stilyagi, o el estilo de los niños, rompían las caras y las ventanas. La policía, parecía incapaz de mantenerlos bajo control. Cuenta Burgess: “Se me ocurrió que podría ser una buena idea crear una especie de hooligan joven que crea una cortina de hierro y hablará una jerga compuesta por dos de las dos lenguas políticas más poderosas del mundo, anglo-americano y el ruso”[v].

Esta novela, describe al mundo de violencia de un adolescente y los controles gubernamentales, crea una nueva jerga y moda entre adolescentes. Burgess trata de plasmar una visión cristiana, pues piensa que la violencia es algo juvenil y se convierte en aburrido con el paso del tiempo, bajo la premisa de que los seres humanos cambian. Este pensamiento sólo se escribe en el capítulo XXI de la novela, mismo que fue eliminado de la edición estadounidense. Kubrick toma como referencia, para la película, la edición estadounidense, por ello en su película nunca vemos a un Alex arrepentido y con familia. Hecho que con los años molesta a Burgess, pues pensaba que el final de la película de Kubrick no tenía nada que ver con el mensaje que él quería dar en su novela, un mensaje moralista.

RMM/ Jimena Ladu Cine / @jimenaladu

 


[i] Paul Duncan, entrevistado por Gary Leva, A clockwork orange Documentary “Great bolshy yarblockos”,  2007.

[ii] Neil Fullwood, entrevistado por Gary Leva, A clockwork orange Documentary “Great bolshy yarblockos”,  2007.

[iii] Anthony Burgess on A Clockwork Orange [en línea], The Kubrick site, dirección URL: http://www.visual-memory.co.uk/amk/doc/burgess.html [consulta:24 de octubre de 2010].

[iv] Carles Feixa, De jóvenes, bandas y tribus: antropología de la juventud, segunda edición, Barcelona, Editorial Ariel, S.A., 1999, p. 125.

[v] SA, The International Anthony Burgess Foundation, dirección URL: http://www.anthonyburgess.org/ [15 de noviembre de 2010].

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