Nicanor Parra: el antipoeta presente en el bicentenario de Chile

nicanor_parraNicanor Parra (1914) el padre de la corriente llamada Antipoesía, se suma a la celebración del bicentenario de la Independencia de su país. Esta festividad se lleva a cabo en la Feria del Libro Usado en Santo Domingo (Satiango de Chile), allí se dará un homenaje al antipoeta, así como también a otros ganadores del Premio Nacional de Literatura.

En esta feria, del 28 de enero al 14 de febrero de este año, se fija la atención en Nicanor Parra, poeta adversario de los cánones tradicionales de la literatura, rebelde a los géneros convencionales que en un acto heroico de su obra intenta terminar con los espacios literarios: la impostación de voz, la poesía sin retóricas con realidad mentalizada. Poeta que devuelve a la voz la vida al oponerse a la sintaxis cuidada, al “buen” gusto y al buen estilo, y expresa la vida en un lenguaje directo y coloquial, apegado a la propia experiencia.

En la década de los cuarenta Parra definió su poesía como contra-discurso lirico, una recuperación del habla empírico, como dice Adolfo Sánchez Rocca: “su proyecto corresponde a una ampliación-alteración o transgresión de las normas de construcción discursiva propias de la condición postmoderna”.

Intenta tachar, corregir, borrar, hacer desaparecer los dogmas de la expresión y darle un tono más usual al hacer poesía no sólo en una hoja en blanco, sino en postales y en carteles tal como lo hace en su obra Artefactos poéticos, donde con pequeñas líneas de orden popular y presentando un toque irónico se burla de la situación que intenta criticar, podemos citar algunas de sus líneas: “La palabrita pueblo ya me pone la carne de gallina” o “Vergüenza nacional/ tuve que eyacular en el vacío”, “La izquierda y la derecha jamás serán vencidas”.

Nicanor es corrosivo y provocador en círculos de estudiosos pues insulta a la poesía de forma deconstructiva. Escribe en forma de parodia, distorsión, mezcla estilos entre los que se ven claras la verosimilitud, la ficción, la lógica; un reto según muchos especialistas para renovar el uso del lenguaje, y todo esto hace de Parra un poeta auténtico, ya que no sigue patrones literarios definidos.

Parra decía: “Tengo la misión de liquidar a la poesía”, a la que también hay que ofender, pues como dice en una de sus postales: “La poesía morirá si no se le ofende hay que poseerla y humillarla en público después se verá lo que se hace”. Con ello intentaba acabar con el orden delineado de la literatura.

De frases irónicas, la poesía de Parra es más crítica que estética, sus líneas ofrecen una llamada de atención a la literatura que acontece en nuestro tiempo para no quedarse en estilos acabados sino dar oportunidad a la creación de nuevas maneras de expresión. Parra pone en duda la racionalidad hegemónica debido a que explica la experiencia empírica, la conversación ordinaria al hilo de la vida real. Además instaura el nihilismo, el lenguaje conversacional, la ironía, critica y desacredita el “Yo” poético.

Parra ha recibido tres postulaciones al Premio Nobel, la primera en 1995 por la Universidad de Nueva York, la segunda en 1997 por la Universidad de Concepción y en el 2000 por la Universidad de Chile, de igual forma ha recibido premios en diversas universidades y hasta se han filmado dos películas sobre su vida y obra: Nicanor Parra en Nueva York, de Jaime Barros, y Nicanor Parra, de Guillérmo Kahn. También se hicieron videos antipoéticos titulados: Cachureos, Sermones de El Cristo de Elqui y un documental dirigido por el destacado artista Claudio Di Girólamo, que habla sobre la vida del escritor. Los trabajos de este poeta se multiplican desde su obra Poemas y Antipoemas y se comenzaron a hacer numerosos estudios sobre el autor. Hasta la fecha resulta un reto para los hermeneutas tratar de precisar el significado de sus pinceladas poéticas.

Entre sus obras más famosas se distinguen: Cancionero sin nombre, Poemas y Antipoemas, La Cueca Larga, Obra Gruesa, Artefactos, Hojas de Parra, Poemas para combatir la calvicie, Páginas en Blanco y Discursos de Sobremesa.

Nicanor Parra, hermano de la gran trovadora Violeta Parra y de dos hermanos más. De padres artistas siempre identificados con su pueblo, es un hombre ejemplar. Voz, sin duda, de Latinoamérica.

RL/CC/CO

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