Nuevos patrimonios de la humanidad en territorio mexicano

Vista de las Cuevas Prehistóricas de Yagul y Mitla

Vista de las Cuevas Prehistóricas de Yagul y Mitla

(Mex) El Comité de Patrimonio Mundial de la UNESCO declaró, en la reunión celebrada en Brasil el domingo primero de agosto, que El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro y las Cuevas Prehistóricas de Yagul y Mitla en los Valles Centrales de Oaxaca son nuevos patrimonios mundiales localizados en México.

Las candidaturas mexicanas fueron presentadas por el Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH), como parte de las 39 que concursaban en la 34ª reunión del Comité de Patrimonio Mundial de la UNESCO, concluída oficialmente el 3 de agosto. Con esta decisión, México cuenta con 31 bienes declarados por la UNESCO: 25 Sitios Culturales, 4 Sitios Naturales y ahora 1 Itinerario Cultural, y se mantiene como la principal entidad federativa en América Latina con más bienes declarados como Patrimonio Mundial.

El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, también conocido como el Camino de la Plata o el Camino a Santa Fe, era una ruta comercial de 2.560 Km de longitud que unía la antigua Ciudad de México con Santa Fe, Nuevo México en los Estados Unidos entre 1598 y 1882. La ruta atravesaba Querétaro, Guanajuato, Jalisco, San Luis Potosí, Aguascalientes, Zacatecas, Durango, Chihuahua, Texas y Nuevo México, pasando por ciudades tan importantes como Ciudad Juárez, El Paso, Las Cruces y Albuquerque. La sección del camino que discurre por territorio estadounidense, un total de 646 Km., fue declarada National Historic Trail en octubre de 2000.

El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro fue inscrito en la Lista Indicativa Mexicana en noviembre de 2001, bajo dos criterios culturales, los cuales se refieren a: I) Representar una obra maestra del genio creativo del hombre;
II) Ser la manifestación de un intercambio de influencias considerable, durante un determinado periodo o en un área cultural específica, en el desarrollo de la arquitectura o de la tecnología, las artes monumentales, la planificación urbana o el diseño de paisajes. En reconocimiento por parte de la UNESCO, el Camino Real de Tierra Adentro está calificado como itinerario cultural, es decir, como una vía humana de altos valores antropológicos.

Por otro lado, las Cuevas Prehistóricas de Yagul y Mitla fueron postuladas por el INAH, cuyos estudios han mostrado que las cavernas albergan semillas de calabaza de 10.000 años de antigüedad, que constituyen los restos más antiguos de plantas domesticadas conocidas hasta ahora en América.

También fueron descubiertas semillas de fríjol y maíz que datan de 6.000 y 4.200 años a. C. respectivamente. Según el arqueólogo Antonio Martínez Tuñón, investigador del INAH, las cuevas sirvieron de refugio para grupos de cazadores-recolectores. Según Martínez Tuñón, en la región también fueron descubiertos restos de fauna del Pleistoceno con marcas de corte y consumo, así como de campamentos de paleoindios.

El informe enviado a la UNESCO proponía la declaración como Patrimonio Cultural de un área de cerca de 5.000 hectáreas en jurisdicción de los municipios de Tlacolula de Matamoros, Villa Díaz Ordaz y San Pablo Villa de Mitla.
Así, El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro y las Cuevas Prehistóricas de Yagul y Mitla han pasado a formar parte de los 31 bienes declarados por la UNESCO en México,  con lo que el país se mantiene como la entidad federativa en América Latina con más bienes declarados como Patrimonio Mundial.

AM/RL

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