“Only God Forgives”, la denuncia de lo correcto

Ryan Gosling en “Only God Forgives” (2013), Nicolas Winding Refn

JEREMY OCELOT |

Vituperada, abucheada, acusada de ser un exceso en estilo pero vacua en historia, llega a la 55 Muestra Internacional de Cine en Cineteca Nacional, Sólo Dios perdona (Only God Forgives, 2013) noveno largometraje de Nicolas Winding Refn.

Con Ryan Gosling una vez más en el papel protagónico, Refn presenta un relato de moral ambigua (que no amoral) que reconoce la belleza de lo sórdido, la violencia y demás “podredumbre” humana, sin cuestionar o condenar la naturaleza de los mismos, donde sus personajes se encuentran inevitablemente atraídos (como su director) al ominoso universo del bajo mundo de un (acaso imaginario) Bangkok actual, como si no supieran o quisieran existir fuera de él.

Un filme que no pide apologías por su uso de la violencia, lenguaje procaz, situaciones que podrían ser fácilmente tachadas de misóginas e incluso gratuitas; el cual difícilmente obtendrá la indiferencia del público pues lo más seguro es que sea amado u odiado, y cuya más grande virtud no sólo es contar con la siempre elegante y segura mano de Refn para el encuadre, sino la de poseer un discurso que se antoja políticamente incorrecto. Y mucho.

En términos estilísticos, Only God Forgives se erige como la continuación superlativa del anterior filme del cineasta danés. Nuevamente nos encontramos ante la iluminación neón característica de Drive (2011), llevada a su máximo esplendor de mano del fotógrafo Larry Smith, un recurso que toma relevancia cuando se analiza el sentido voyeurístico del relato. Las escenas apenas iluminadas, tan hermosamente nocturnas, nos permiten ver ciertas partes del cuerpo de los personajes, la cámara nos insinúa y a veces nos oculta lo que pasa, manteniendo siempre una marcada distancia, como si en realidad no debiéramos estar ahí; es por esto que la luz neón resulta tan atrayente, pues es perfectamente adecuada para las intenciones del director: se nos seduce, quizá como la violencia sedujo a Nicolas, el oxímoron perfecto de que ésta resulte tan desagradable y tan estéticamente bella aun tiempo. No nos permite apartar la vista de la pantalla.

Regresa también Cliff Martínez en el departamento de musicalización, con un efectivo score que más que intrusivo, cumple la función de acentuar la opresiva y a la vez hipnótica atmósfera que nos mantiene viendo un espectáculo que, la sociedad nos ha dicho, deberíamos condenar. Un trabajo musical muy en deuda con compositores como Vangelis, donde algunas piezas resultan incluso reminiscentes de la banda sonora de Blade Runner (Ridley Scott, 1982), pero cuya efectividad se ve demostrada en acaso la secuencia más climática del filme, que junto con una elipsis de antología por parte de Larry Smith, perfectamente coordinados por Nicolas terminan por demostrar que incluso si no les satisface en términos narrativos el producto, la valía como director de Refn sigue vigente.

Incluso el criticado trabajo de Gosling, como el lacónico y exasperantemente taciturno Julian, tiene una razón de ser en un relato en apariencia sencillo, pero que se revela muy hacia al final como un metódico estudio de la psique humana y que trata asuntos de complejidad edípica que aún hoy parecen representar un gran tabú. Apoyado por la también muy criticada Kristin Scott Thomas (El paciente inglés, 1996), perfecta en su papel de la madre castrante y Vithaya Pansringarm como el —intencionalmente— mítico antihéroe del relato. Un guión donde las drogas, la violencia, explotación sexual y degradación son explícitos, pero donde los conflictos internos se esconden en los silencios y se revelan sólo cuando la voz menos mesurada y más estridente decide irrumpir, en un acto de sobrada desesperación.

La que en manos de cualquier otro director podría haber resultado en una historia revanchista más, el danés la convierte en una muy interesante exploración de la barbárica naturaleza humana, donde la violencia y la proclividad del ser humano a su propia destrucción, se aceptan de una manera tan inherente al mismo, como lo es el tan celebrado elemento del amor. Es precisamente este punto discursivo uno de los más (si no es que el más) interesantes del último trabajo de Refn. La violencia como elemento característico humano, el cual no necesita justificación para existir, la violencia por la violencia, si así se quiere ver.

Si en Heli (Amat Escalante, 2013), ganadora este año del Galardón a mejor director en el Festival de Cannes, la violencia tan o más cruenta y explícita, se justificaba o perdonaba, era por un más bien maniqueo discurso de denuncia hacia las autoridades y la situación actual de México, donde quedaba más que claro quiénes eran las víctimas y los victimarios; en Only God Forgives la violencia se revela horrorizante pero Refn no se atreve a condenarla, pues la línea entre víctimas y victimarios no es clara: no se les condona responsabilidad a quienes la viven, debido a sus actos (o falta de).

En este sentido el filme no sólo resulta más inteligente sino a la vez más crítico. Mientras que en la película de Escalante las autoridades se asumen como corruptas y violentas a la par de los criminales, en Only God Forgives se presume la violencia como necesaria incluso para las instituciones cuando éstas fallan, y el actuar fuera de la ley adquiere un nuevo y más complejo significado que el de ser simplemente “malo”, socialmente inaceptable o políticamente incorrecto. Y es finalmente este discurso donde ambas películas tienen su gran diferencia, en Heli la violencia por parte de un actor institucional, es vista como consecuencia de la corrupción de las mismas, en Only God Forgives se ve a la violencia como posible solución a la violencia, como último recurso ante el fallo de las tan políticamente correctas vías pacíficas y burocráticas de obtener justicia, una tesis no tan descabellada ante la ineptitud de las instituciones de traer paz.

Se trata finalmente de una inteligente exposición de la naturaleza humana, donde quizá lo más acertado es que si bien la postura que se le elige no es acrítica, tampoco tiene la intención de condenar, sino presentar un sistema de códigos morales tan diversos como los destinos de sus diferentes protagonistas, donde el elegir si uno se ve identificado con alguno de los mismos, es tarea del espectador y no del director. Donde lo expuesto resulta más aterrador por la disonante belleza con la que es acompañado.

| RMM | JO | @JeremyBelmondo |

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