¿Otro Gran Remate?

Foto © José Luis García / RMM

Con la participación de más de 200 sellos nacionales y extranjeros, del pasado 1 al 8 de abril, se desarrolló en el vestíbulo del Auditorio Nacional el 6º Gran Remate de Libros, un evento muy esperado por cientos de amantes de la lectura en la Ciudad de México.

Aunque este tipo de remates surgieron de la urgencia de las editoriales por vaciar sus bodegas de los libros que ya no se venden, sin tener que destruirlos, actualmente estas ventas de garaje se presentan como apoyo a la industria editorial, a la economía de los lectores, y como un frente para impulsar el hábito de la lectura.

Así, el Remate en Auditorio forma parte del programa de Fomento a la Lectura y el Libro de la Secretaría de Cultura del Distrito Federal, con el cual se pretende —a según de Elena Cepeda de León, titular de la dependencia— formar ciudadanos “con una actitud más crítica y activa”, así como conseguir “una sociedad más lectora y por lo tanto más cívica, más comprometida y más libre.”

Es cierto que, en ocasiones, uno puede descubrir en dichos festejos libros que pensábamos agotados, o que ya no estaban en circulación; sin embargo, también existen infinidad de libros en mal estado, de los llamados de “superación personal”, recetarios de cocina, enciclopedias y diccionarios descuidados, descontinuados o incompletos. Y es con este tipo de libros que se aspira a conseguir una sociedad más lectora.

Uno llega a entender el razonamiento. Es probable que para María Cristina García Cepeda, coordinadora ejecutiva del Auditorio Nacional, y Elena Cepeda de León, la importancia de la realización del Remate radique en superar las cifras de venta del año pasado, donde se facturaron 8.5 millones de pesos por la venta de 226 mil ejemplares.

No obstante, es necesario entender que el fomento a la lectura no es sólo un asunto de números. Que no se trata de vender por vender. Se debe entender que la lectura va más allá de eso. Debe fomentarse el hábito de leer por gusto, ya no sólo como obligación con el fin básico de “aprobar” exámenes para finalizar carreras y forjar currículos.

El hábito de lectura ayuda, de una u otra, a desarrollar habilidades en la persona, a entender y cuestionar la realidad presente y pasada. Juan Domingo Argüelles considera que la cultura escrita, hablando en general de la lectura de esta, “es un bien intangible que desarrolla el humanismo y favorece la autonomía, el espíritu crítico y la recreación de sentido a partir de las ideas que encierran los libros.” Por esto es necesario que los “remates” tengan otro enfoque. Que no se pretenda enmarcar una venta de saldos dentro de un programa de fomento a la lectura, porque entonces, ¿qué fomento a la lectura se quiere dar?

Es necesario, pues, se exija, desde el seno de la sociedad, todo el apoyo del sector público y privado para que puedan existir dentro de estos remates toda clase de libros, incluyendo a exponentes de la literatura contemporánea, títulos y autores de todos los géneros, y que no se basen éstos solamente en vaciar las bodegas de las editoriales puesto que, el simple hecho de organizar ventas libreras, como el Gran Remate en el Auditorio o las 27 Ferias Comunitarias de “fomento a la lectura” en las explanadas delegacionales, no representa, a corto ni largo plazo, que vaya a existir una sociedad más lectora, y por tanto, más libre.

Si echamos un vistazo al índice de lectura per cápita anual en México —2.9 libros—, de acuerdo con los datos más recientes de la Encuesta Nacional de Lectura que publica el Conaculta desde 2006, nos damos cuenta que es importante que existan eventos donde no sólo se rematen saldos, sino donde se resignifique el papel de la lectura en la sociedad y se deje de lado la concepción puramente mercantilista que se tiene de ella.

Es necesario que nuestros gobernantes comprendan el verdadero origen de la falta de lectura. El ciudadano común no aborrece la práctica sino que no cuenta, no tiene acceso a los insumos necesarios, y esta concepción mercantilista que se tiene de ella tiene mucho que ver en el asunto.

Con los salarios que existen en México, ¿cómo puede una familia aspirar a adquirir libros para crear una biblioteca en casa, si los precios de los volúmenes son altísimos, en comparación con los ingresos?, ¿cómo adquirirlos en los encuentros libreros, como la Feria Internacional del Libro del Palacio de Minería, si para acceder a ellos hay que pagar y, ya dentro, los precios son elevadísimos?, ¿cómo fomentar la lectura en la sociedad si los libros que se venden en los “remates”, donde muchas familias aprovechan para adquirir algunos libros, estos dejan mucho que desear?, ¿cómo fomentar la lectura si no hay libros en casa, las bibliotecas públicas se encuentran en un estado deficiente, en las librerías los precios son desproporcionados y en los “remates” circulan sólo libros de superación personal?

Tres datos proporcionados por Conaculta reflejan el poco interés del Gobierno —federal, estatal y municipal— como entidad ordenadora de la sociedad en el presente rubro: 1) México cuenta únicamente con 7, 211 bibliotecas distribuidas en los 31 estados y el Distrito Federal, (225 por entidad, una cada 115 mil habitantes) espacios que requieren, además, de una urgente modernización en infraestructura, tecnología, cuidado de acervos y capacitación de personal. 2) A nivel nacional, se registran 450 ferias del libro, con un número de habitantes por feria de 229,474. 3) México cuenta con 71 mil habitantes por librería.

Es urgente incrementar las opciones de lectura, y hacerlo es deber, en gran medida, del Estado.

RMM/JLG

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