Pacto por la cultura

Logo del Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes (Conaculta)

LILIANA HERNÁNDEZ SÁNCHEZ | Hace poco más de un año el ahora Presidente de la República pasó por una de las escenas mediáticas más criticadas en su candidatura. Enrique Peña Nieto asistió a la Feria Internacional de Libro de Guadalajara a presentar un libro de su autoría.

En esa presentación un reportero le hizo la siguiente pregunta: ¿Cuáles libros han marcado su vida? Ante tal cuestionamiento el entonces candidato se encontró fuera de contexto y comenzó a decir una serie de incoherencias, entre ellas, que La silla del águila había sido escrita por Enrique Krauze y no por Carlos Fuentes.

En el terreno de la interpretación la escena anterior significó muchas cosas, por ejemplo: que Peña Nieto “no lee” o que “es un inculto”. En su momento estos adjetivos fueron materia de crítica, pero ahora que es ya presidente del país, estas interpretaciones dejan de ser anecdóticas y se convierten en una preocupación más para el sector cultura, ya que Peña Nieto representa al Estado, principal responsable de dictar las políticas públicas del país, entre ellas, por supuesto, las de índole cultural.

Néstor García Canclini define a las políticas culturales como “el conjunto de intervenciones realizadas por el Estado, las instituciones civiles y los grupos comunitarios organizados, a fin de orientar el desarrollo simbólico, satisfacer las necesidades culturales de la población y obtener consenso para un tipo de orden o transformación social”.

Al respecto, el presente Gobierno ha resumido en cinco compromisos las iniciativas en materia de política cultural que se espera serán parte de los ejes de trabajo en el próximo sexenio; estos compromisos son parte de los 95 que integran el llamado “Pacto por México”.

En el punto 1.4 de este documento se lee lo siguiente:

 

1.4. La cultura como elemento de cohesión social.

Se impulsará una política consistente con la composición pluricultural de la nación, como elemento de cohesión social que, entre otras cosas, permita recuperar espacios públicos y fortalezca el tejido social.

• Protección del patrimonio cultural.

México tiene cerca de cien mil sitios arqueológicos y monumentos históricos. Es necesaria su protección a través de una legislación que reconozca las nuevas relaciones entre la Federación y los gobiernos de las entidades federativas y los municipios. De igual forma, la adecuada restauración, sobre todo de los sitios arqueológicos, permitirá una vinculación más eficaz entre la cultura y la promoción turística detonando el empleo y el desarrollo regional. (Compromiso 16)

• Infraestructura en los estados.

México tiene una enorme infraestructura cultural (teatros, auditorios, museos, galerías, bibliotecas y otros espacios públicos) subutilizada que se renovará para tener espacios dignos para la adecuada difusión de la cultura en todo el país. (Compromiso 17).

• Educación artística.

Se introducirán en las escuelas, particularmente en las de horario ampliado, programas de educación artística que desarrollen en los alumnos el gusto por la cultura y los ayuden a desarrollar habilidades que mejoren su aprendizaje en otras materias. (Compromiso 18).

• Estímulos a creadores.

Se incrementará el número de becas para apoyar a todas las artes, y potenciar el talento y la formación de los artistas mexicanos, particularmente de los más jóvenes. Se otorgarán apoyos económicos a las industrias creativas. Asimismo, los proyectos vinculados a la ciencia, la tecnología y el arte, que ofrezcan contenidos para nuevas plataformas, recibirán estímulos mensuales durante un año. (Compromiso 19).

• La cultura como proyección de México en el mundo.

Se relanzará y articulará, como estrategia de Estado, el proyecto de Institutos de México en el mundo, aumentando su número, sus programas y alcances, para difundir nuestra cultura en el exterior. (Compromiso 20)

 

En el plano discursivo los párrafos anteriores suenan muy bien, pocos podríamos estar en contra de que la cultura se use como herramienta para fortalecer el tejido social; que se protejan y restauren sitios arqueológicos y monumentos históricos; se dignifiquen los espacios para la difusión de la cultura; se incentive desde los niveles básicos de educación el gusto por la cultura, se apoye la formación de talento y se den estímulos para aquellos que decidan invertir en cultura. ¿Cómo no estar de acuerdo en que el mundo entero conozca las maravillas culturales de México?

Sin embargo, no todo es miel sobre hojuelas, en los puntos anteriores hay grandes omisiones.

Al hablar de la protección al patrimonio cultural se deja completamente olvidado el tema de la protección al patrimonio inmaterial; se habla también de la renovación de espacios para la difusión de la cultura, pero es muy importante mencionar que existen estados en los que prácticamente no hay nada que renovar porque carecen de ellos; además de “renovar”, es urgente acercar la cultura a los más.

Y —por si no había quedado claro que al nuevo presidente poco le importa el tema de la lectura— en ninguno de los compromisos se menciona el tema del fomento a la lectura y el libro, tema que ha sido parte importante de las políticas de Estado en los últimos veinticuatro años.

Finalmente, a casi una semana de haber iniciado la nueva administración presidencial, Rafael Tovar y de Teresa es nombrado por segunda vez presidente del Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes (Conaculta), él será el encargado de poner en marcha estos pactos por la cultura.

Además de los retos inherentes a su cargo, Tovar y de Teresa tendrá que demostrar a sus detractores que no sólo es una pieza política fácilmente manejable, tendrá que demostrar que la cultura es mucho más que un instrumento a la orden del poder para ser usado cuando se necesite de legitimidad.

Ojalá su proyecto de cultura tenga como propósito final lo que él mismo propusiera hace algún tiempo en su libro Modernización y política cultural (FCE, 1994), y que se ha ido postergando: “La difusión del arte y la cultura, con la meta de que éstas lleguen al mayor número posible de mexicanos, en especial a los menos favorecidos”.

| RMM | LHS | @la_lilyhs |

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