Periodismo, democracia y violencia en México

 

ROGELIO LAGUNA y SALVADOR PONCE |

En México cuesta trabajo informar y defender el derecho a la información.No se trata, como las cifras históricas muestran, de un problema reciente ni de un asunto derivado exclusivamente del narcotráfico y las acciones emprendidas contra éste. Todavía resuenan en la memoria, por ejemplo, las crónicas de Oriana Fallaci sobre las vejaciones a las que fueron sometidos los periodistas que cubrían el movimiento estudiantil de 1968, en el que además se buscó destruir material fotográfico y testimonial que diera cuenta de los abusos gubernamentales. Años más tarde, Elena Poniatowska sería premiada con el Villaurrrutia por su Noche de Tlatelolco, premio que la escritora rechazó advirtiendo que dicho galardón significaba comprar su futuro silencio.

Comprar, matar, destruir, amenazar, han hecho que el periodismo en México se haya convertido a través de regímenes en un sistema complejo, desfondado, orientado a la nota del corazón y al “chayotazo”, donde sólo algunos valientes —rebeldes ante la moda actual de formar “comunicadores” y no periodistas— aprovechados también a su modo por el régimen en turno, se atreven a indagar en los asuntos más preocupantes del interés público. Si a esto sumamos que el periodismo en México se ha corporativizado día con día y que está controlado por empresas, interesadas en unos casos por mejorar sus ganancias, en otras por mantener a raya el discurso crítico por encargo o parentesco con las esferas del poder fáctico, público o privado, o bien, por mantener las concesiones y evitarse problemas más allá de permitirse algunos señalamientos críticos, parecería que no hay lugar para el periodismo, o mejor dicho, que su lugar se ha reducido al periodismo alternativo hecho desde blogs,  páginas en internet y radios comunitarias, espacios que no dejan de estar amenazados por manos invisibles (aunque puede sospecharse de dónde provienen), y por la propia legislación de nuestro país, que a pretexto de reformar pone en la mira el control de esos espacios.

El escenario anterior haría sospechar que en México la libertad de prensano existe. De acuerdo a la Clasificación Mundial de la Libertad de la Prensa 2014, publicada por la organización Reporteros Sin Fronteras (RSF), México ocupa el lugar 152 de entre 180 países evaluados. Ser periodista es una profesión con pocos espacios, con temas escabrosos que no deben tocarse, aunque estos sean primordiales para el futuro de la nación. Es también un trabajo peligroso y amenazado. A favor de esto último hablan las escalofriantes cifras de los últimos años. Según los números, la escalada de violencia en contra de los periodistas no ha parado desde el sexenio de Felipe Calderón, periodo en el que murieron más periodistas que en ningún otro en la historia de México, y ha continuado en la actual administración. Según el Comité para la Protección de Periodistas, de 2010 a la fecha en México han sido asesinados 31 periodistas.

Esto dice que México, sin que se haga algo al respecto, es uno de los países más peligrosos del mundo para ejercer el periodismo. Peligro, intimidación, privación de la libertad, y cosas peores,  van de la mano por los intentos constantes de cooptación, a través de pagos directos o de la compra de publicidad. Una formación deficiente de profesionales apoya este régimen de la desinformación, en donde todos quieren ser estrellas de la televisión, trabajar para los principales periódicos y revistas, incluso con la poca autonomía profesional que eso representa, con sus honrosas excepciones.

A pesar de su imposibilidad, sorprende que en México el periodismo de calidad luche cada día por existir. Hay importantes ejemplos de periodismo que han buscado denunciar la corrupción y las conexiones entre las autoridades y el crimen organizado. Una desafortunada prueba de ello son los asesinatos y las intimidaciones. Cuando los periodistas comprometidos con la ética del periodista, que es ante todo un compromiso con la sociedad y con la democracia, no se callan ante las amenazas, no ceden a las relaciones clientelares y no detienen el curso de sus investigaciones, surge desde su imposibilidad, el periodismo.

Las respuestas al periodismo valiente, el que puede en verdad llamarse periodismo, han sido amenazas y homicidios. Muchos de estos casos han permanecido impunes durante años. Las autoridades no están dispuestas a aclarar estas muertes porque ello significaría delatar a funcionarios públicos o miembros de partidos implicados en estos delitos, o a las corporaciones con las que están aliadas. El periodista no tiene libertad de expresión ni derecho a la justicia. El público, a pesar de los esfuerzos, sigue desinformado.

Respecto al periodismo cultural, en MilMesetas, a lo largo de cinco años, hemos apostado por el registro y difusión de las manifestaciones culturales más importantes de nuestro país. Es cierto, que respecto a otros frentes periodísticos, el periodismo cultural se encuentra en un lugar privilegiado en el que las amenazas son menos y los intereses en juego, según la clara opinión de los poderes del país, son siempre considerados de segunda. Esto, sin embargo, no implica que el periodismo cultural no tenga que luchar contra la intimidación y los intentos de cooptación, ni contra la tentación del propio reportero de disminuir el discurso crítico frente a las instituciones, colectivos y festivales, que lo “honran” al invitarle.

El compromiso, sin embargo, no debe ser menor que en el de otros frentes. Especialmente si tomamos en cuenta que gran parte de la cultura en nuestro país se hace con recursos públicos, y en muchos casos de forma improvisada. El periodismo representa una herramienta para el desarrollo de la sociedad. No sólo se trata de mantener el flujo de información que los soportes técnicos de los medios de comunicación permiten. El periodismo, ejercido libremente en contextos democráticos, es una forma de exigencia al gobierno y sus instituciones, es un frente para la defensa del derecho a la cultura.

La exigencia y rendición de cuentas, la transparencia de los organismos estatales y la erradicación de la corrupción son objetivos de toda democracia, régimen político en la que periodismo libre no es una opción sino una necesidad. Pues cuando la institución periodística no es objeto de amenazas y se le otorga la suficiente autonomía, ambas cuestiones irresueltas en nuestro país, el periodismo puede ser una herramienta útil para el mantenimiento de una democracia.

Sin embargo, hablar de democracia en México es un asunto complejo. En un país en el que no se cumplen las garantías básicas de seguridad ni para el periodista ni para el ciudadano, en un país en el que algunos estados permanecen controlados por el narcotráfico, en el que las autoridades se encuentran parcial o totalmente coludidas con el crimen organizado, en un país en el que el estado de derecho es amenazado por la violencia y los asesinatos cotidianos, en un país en que las personas viven con miedo de los secuestros y las amenazas, en el que los medios de información monopólicos desvirtúan y desprestigian la labor periodística, convirtiendo el periodismo en propaganda y contribuyendo a la estatización de la política, el periodismo de calidad parece imposible.

¿Pero cómo es posible que sin condiciones apropiadas para llevar a cabo su labor, surjan los periodistas realmente comprometidos? Quizás la respuesta a esta pregunta se encuentre de nuevo en la conexión entre democracia y periodismo. El periodismo de calidad es útil para el sostenimiento de una democracia. Pero si la democracia es incipiente, el periodismo entonces es un mecanismo para contribuir a su consolidación. En México contribuir quiere decir una permanente lucha contra quienes pretende anular la libertad de expresión. Por ello, hombres y mujeres dedicados al periodismo en todo el país luchan desde esa trinchera por la democracia y sus valores: la libertad, la justicia, la transparencia…

El compromiso así, desde cualquier género del periodismo, es solidarizarnos con los familiares de las víctimas y con los periodistas que a diario se enfrentan con las condiciones adversas para realizar su labor, y ser parte de una arenga que una a medios de información comprometidos con la sociedad, así como a la propia sociedad civil, en contra de todo intento de coartar la libertad de expresión y hacer pública la ausencia de una auténtica democracia en nuestro país. Denunciemos la violencia ejercida en contra de los periodistas, porque denunciando los ataques en contra de la institución cultural que es el periodismo, denunciamos también el mito de la democracia mexicana.

RMM|RL|SP|

257 Comments

  1. Thank you for some other informative website. Where else could I get that type of information written in such a perfect means? I have a undertaking that I am simply now operating on, and I have been at the look out for such information.

  2. Hello my family member! I wish to say that this post is amazing, nice written and include almost all significant infos. I¡¦d like to look extra posts like this .

  3. Good ¡V I should definitely pronounce, impressed with your site. I had no trouble navigating through all the tabs as well as related information ended up being truly simple to do to access. I recently found what I hoped for before you know it in the least. Quite unusual. Is likely to appreciate it for those who add forums or something, website theme . a tones way for your client to communicate. Excellent task..

  4. Hello, i think that i saw you visited my site thus i came to “return the favor”.I am attempting to find things to improve my website!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  5. My brother suggested I might like this web site. He was totally right. This post actually made my day. You cann’t imagine just how much time I had spent for this info! Thanks!

  6. spxrtqomw,Hi there, just wanted to say, I liked this article. It was helpful. Keep on posting!

  7. Definitely believe that which you stated. Your favorite reason seemed to be on the internet the simplest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I certainly get irked while people consider worries that they just don’t know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top and defined out the whole thing without having side effect , people can take a signal. Will likely be back to get more. Thanks

  8. Useful information. Lucky me I found your site unintentionally, and I’m stunned why this twist of fate didn’t took place in advance! I bookmarked it.

  9. Hello.This article was really fascinating, particularly since I was looking for thoughts on this matter last Friday.

  10. qstismtdk,Thanks a lot for providing us with this recipe of Cranberry Brisket. I’ve been wanting to make this for a long time but I couldn’t find the right recipe. Thanks to your help here, I can now make this dish easily.

  11. yykqnggsnii,Waw! Its really great and wonderful ever i found. Thank you for sharing this info.

  12. wonderful issues altogether, you just gained a new reader. What could you recommend about your submit that you just made some days ago? Any positive?

  13. I simply desired to say thanks again. I am not sure the things I could possibly have made to happen without the actual ways discussed by you regarding this area of interest. Certainly was a very frustrating problem in my position, nevertheless coming across this specialised avenue you processed the issue took me to jump over delight. I’m grateful for this guidance and in addition believe you realize what a powerful job you are always doing educating most people through the use of a web site. I am sure you haven’t encountered all of us.

  14. Undeniably believe that which you said. Your favorite justification appeared to be on the internet the simplest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I definitely get irked while people consider worries that they just don’t know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top as well as defined out the whole thing without having side-effects , people could take a signal. Will probably be back to get more. Thanks

  15. I have been browsing on-line more than 3 hours lately, but I by no means discovered any attention-grabbing article like yours. It¡¦s pretty price sufficient for me. Personally, if all web owners and bloggers made excellent content as you probably did, the net will be a lot more useful than ever before.

  16. I simply want to say I am just beginner to weblog and absolutely liked this blog site. Almost certainly I’m going to bookmark your site . You absolutely come with impressive stories. Kudos for sharing your blog.

  17. Hello.This post was extremely fascinating, particularly because I was searching for thoughts on this matter last week.

  18. You actually make it seem so easy together with your presentation but I find this topic to be really one thing that I believe I might never understand. It kind of feels too complicated and very vast for me. I’m having a look ahead to your subsequent publish, I will try to get the cling of it!

  19. Thank you so much for giving everyone an extremely remarkable possiblity to discover important secrets from this website. It’s always very ideal and as well , packed with a good time for me and my office colleagues to visit your blog on the least 3 times per week to study the newest issues you have. And definitely, I am just at all times impressed for the great knowledge you serve. Certain 2 areas in this post are really the very best we have all had.

  20. You actually make it appear so easy along with your presentation but I to find this topic to be actually one thing that I believe I’d by no means understand. It seems too complicated and very broad for me. I am looking ahead in your next put up, I¡¦ll try to get the grasp of it!

  21. Thanks so much for giving everyone remarkably wonderful opportunity to read in detail from this web site. It’s usually so enjoyable and also stuffed with a good time for me personally and my office colleagues to search your website at a minimum 3 times every week to study the new tips you have. And lastly, we are at all times fulfilled with all the effective concepts served by you. Certain 1 areas in this article are in reality the most impressive I have ever had.

  22. As I web-site possessor I believe the content matter here is rattling excellent , appreciate it for your efforts. You should keep it up forever! Good Luck.

  23. Wow, incredible blog format! How long have you ever been running a blog for? you make blogging look easy. The full look of your web site is fantastic, let alone the content material!

  24. hey there and thank you for your info – I have certainly picked up something new from right here. I did however expertise some technical points using this website, since I experienced to reload the web site lots of times previous to I could get it to load properly. I had been wondering if your hosting is OK? Not that I’m complaining, but sluggish loading instances times will sometimes affect your placement in google and could damage your high quality score if ads and marketing with Adwords. Well I’m adding this RSS to my e-mail and can look out for much more of your respective exciting content. Make sure you update this again soon..

  25. There is visibly a lot to identify about this. I suppose you made various nice points in features also.

  26. Hello There. I found your blog using msn. This is a really well written article. I will be sure to bookmark it and come back to read more of your useful info. Thanks for the post. I’ll definitely comeback.

  27. Hi there, just became alert to your blog through Google, and found that it is really informative. I am gonna watch out for brussels. I will be grateful if you continue this in future. Numerous people will be benefited from your writing. Cheers!

  28. wgkbjn,Definitely believe that which you said. Your favourite justification appeared to be on the net the simplest thing to remember of.

  29. I like what you guys are up also. Such intelligent work and reporting! Keep up the excellent works guys I¡¦ve incorporated you guys to my blogroll. I think it’ll improve the value of my site 🙂

  30. I have not checked in here for a while since I thought it was getting boring, but the last few posts are good quality so I guess I¡¦ll add you back to my daily bloglist. You deserve it my friend 🙂

  31. I think other web-site proprietors should take this website as an model, very clean and excellent user friendly style and design, as well as the content. You are an expert in this topic!

  32. Hello, Neat post. There’s an issue together with your site in web explorer, might test this¡K IE still is the marketplace leader and a big component to folks will pass over your fantastic writing because of this problem.

  33. I do accept as true with all the ideas you have introduced for your post. They are really convincing and will definitely work. Still, the posts are too quick for novices. May you please prolong them a bit from subsequent time? Thank you for the post.

  34. Wow, amazing blog layout! How long have you been blogging for? you made blogging look easy. The overall look of your website is fantastic, as well as the content!

  35. My brother recommended I might like this blog. He was entirely right. This post actually made my day. You can not imagine simply how much time I had spent for this information! Thanks!

  36. Nice read, I just passed this onto a colleague who was doing some research on that. And he actually bought me lunch because I found it for him smile Thus let me rephrase that: Thank you for lunch!

  37. isywnrggb,Thanks for ones marvelous posting! I actually enjoyed reading it, you will be a great author.I will always bookmark your blog and will kkvfren,come back from now on. I want to encourage that you continue your great writing, have a nice afternoon!

  38. I simply had to appreciate you yet again. I do not know the things that I would have followed in the absence of the actual smart ideas contributed by you directly on my problem. It previously was a real alarming matter for me, but observing the professional fashion you resolved it forced me to jump with fulfillment. Extremely happy for this information and as well , hope that you comprehend what a great job that you’re carrying out training men and women using your web blog. Probably you’ve never met all of us.

  39. I¡¦ve read several just right stuff here. Certainly price bookmarking for revisiting. I wonder how so much attempt you put to create any such wonderful informative web site.

  40. Just wish to say your article is as amazing. The clarity in your post is just great and i can assume you are an expert on this subject. Well with your permission let me to grab your RSS feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please keep up the enjoyable work.

  41. I like the helpful info you provide in your articles. I’ll bookmark your weblog and check again here frequently. I am quite certain I will learn plenty of new stuff right here! Best of luck for the next!

  42. Great article and straight to the point. I don’t know if this is actually the best place to ask but do you guys have any thoughts on where to get some professional writers? Thank you 🙂

  43. Thanks , I have just been looking for information approximately this topic for a while and yours is the greatest I have found out till now. But, what about the bottom line? Are you certain in regards to the source?

  44. I have learn some excellent stuff here. Certainly worth bookmarking for revisiting. I surprise how a lot effort you put to create one of these excellent informative site.

  45. Hiya, I am really glad I’ve found this info. Today bloggers publish only about gossips and web and this is actually irritating. A good web site with interesting content, that is what I need. Thank you for keeping this web site, I will be visiting it. Do you do newsletters? Cant find it.

  46. Hi, Neat post. There is a problem with your site in web explorer, would check this¡K IE still is the marketplace chief and a good section of folks will pass over your wonderful writing because of this problem.

  47. I do trust all of the ideas you’ve presented for your post. They’re very convincing and will definitely work. Nonetheless, the posts are very short for newbies. May just you please extend them a bit from subsequent time? Thanks for the post.

  48. Super-Duper blog! I am loving it!! Will come back again. I am taking your feeds also

  49. Wow! This can be one particular of the most useful blogs We have ever arrive across on this subject. Basically Excellent. I’m also an expert in this topic therefore I can understand your effort.

  50. Thank you for the good writeup. It in fact was a amusement account it. Look advanced to far added agreeable from you! However, how can we communicate?

  51. I simply had to appreciate you yet again. I’m not certain the things I might have sorted out in the absence of the actual smart ideas documented by you directly on such a situation. It truly was the daunting difficulty for me personally, nevertheless being able to view your professional way you treated it made me to leap for joy. Extremely happier for this work and as well , hope that you realize what a great job that you are doing educating people via your webblog. I am certain you’ve never come across all of us.

  52. I would like to thnkx for the efforts you’ve put in writing this site. I am hoping the same high-grade web site post from you in the upcoming as well. In fact your creative writing skills has inspired me to get my own web site now. Actually the blogging is spreading its wings quickly. Your write up is a great example of it.

  53. Hi there, just became alert to your blog through Google, and found that it’s truly informative. I am going to watch out for brussels. I’ll be grateful if you continue this in future. Numerous people will be benefited from your writing. Cheers!

  54. I am asking for my mother. She doesn’t necessarily want to make money off them, her purpose is to use her blog (once popular) and use it as references to possibly help her get a newspaper article. She has a title for one called “Answers to Life’s Problems”. Where can she post blogs and they become popular? She posted it already on WordPress but there are 3 million people posting blogs hers gets lost in the mix. Any suggestions?.

  55. Hello there, just became alert to your blog through Google, and found that it is really informative. I’m going to watch out for brussels. I’ll appreciate if you continue this in future. Numerous people will be benefited from your writing. Cheers!

  56. I¡¦ve been exploring for a little for any high-quality articles or weblog posts on this kind of area . Exploring in Yahoo I at last stumbled upon this site. Reading this info So i am glad to show that I have a very good uncanny feeling I discovered exactly what I needed. I most no doubt will make certain to do not fail to remember this web site and provides it a look regularly.

  57. What i don’t understood is if truth be told how you are not actually a lot more well-favored than you might be right now. You are very intelligent. You know therefore significantly in terms of this matter, produced me for my part imagine it from numerous various angles. Its like women and men aren’t involved until it¡¦s one thing to do with Girl gaga! Your personal stuffs excellent. Always take care of it up!

Leave a Reply

Tu dirección de correo electrónico no será publicada. Los campos obligatorios están marcados con *

*