Policias agreden a huicholes de San Luis Potosí

huicholes(Con información de la Universidad de Guadalajara)

Irrumpen en ceremonia wixárika

A la sociedad civil nacional e internacional

A los medios de comunicación

Al Congreso Nacional Indígena  

El 22 de Febrero de 2010, mientras un numeroso contingente de wixaritari de Tuapurie- Santa Catarina Cuexcomatitlán, se encontraban en un paraje llamado Tanque Valentín, que está dentro del ejido Las Margaritas, municipio de Catorce, San Luis Potosí, estaban realizando ceremonias como parte de su tradición milenaria en el lugar sagrado de Wirikuta, llegaron a las 5:00 de la tarde un contingente de 4 patrullas de la policía estatal, quienes con una actitud prepotente, comenzaron a insultar y tratar como delincuentes a los wixaritari que vieron interrumpida su ceremonia, se rompió el círculo sagrado y se faltó al respeto al abuelo fuego, al romper,  portando armas largas, la numerosa concentración wixárika. 

El hostigamiento continuó hasta las 8:00 de la noche y tuvo lugar en un punto donde se habían reunido, de manera poco habitual, los tres centros ceremoniales de la comunidad de Tuapurie, que son los de Las Latas, Pochotita y Tuapurie (estos últimos unas horas antes habían salido a otro sitio sagrado en el mismo desierto de Wirikuta); cada uno con un camión de wixaritari como peregrinos, por lo que la concentración de jicareros era grande.  

Los policías manipularon las ofrendas sagradas, los cuernos de venado, cruzaron una línea ceremonial que no debían cruzar, -“tu te has de haber metido una grapa” le dijeron al maraakame”. 

Contaron el número de cabezas de peyote que traían los peregrinos, argumentando la existencia de un acuerdo firmado por instituciones de gobierno, en el que se reglamenta la peregrinación a wirikuta, lo cual es violatorio a las tradiciones y formas de operación de las comunidades, pues los peregrinos son comisionados de toda la comunidad y no de una familia o una persona.  

En ese momento los policías amenazaron con regresar, y lo cumplieron hoy 23 de febrero a las 2:00 de la mañana, donde irrumpieron con cámaras de video y fotografía hostigando la ceremonia, el canto del maraakame y la palabra de los antepasados.  

El día 23, mientras los enviados de los centros ceremoniales salieron a dejar ofrendas al sitio sagrado llamado Leunar (en el Cerro Quemado) los policías que habían regresado a las 9:00 de la mañana amenazaron con que la PROFEPA sancionaría y detendría a los peregrinos, argumentando que los peyotes habían sido cortados con todo y raíz; lo cual ha pasado así al menos desde los últimos 3 mil años.

 Este agravio es en sí mismo un ataque al pueblo wixárika, en especial a Tuapurie, pues el atentado se hizo en contra de todos los centros ceremoniales de la comunidad, de cuyo trabajo depende la salud y la vida no solo en el territorio, sino en el universo completo. 

El hostigamiento se dio pocas horas después de que estuvo presente personal de la Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas (CDI) del estado de San Luis Potosí. 

Resulta inverosímil que a pesar de que la PROFEPA, como órgano de la SEMARNAT hostigue a Tuapurie con pretextos ambientales y normas cuyo cumplimiento no es facultad de la policía estatal. Esto mientras se agudiza el saqueo del peyote en manos del narcotráfico, y se destruyen importantes zonas de biodiversidad por la agroindustria multinacional. 

No debemos perder de vista que la comunidad wixárika de Tuapurie, se encuentra desde el mes de febrero de 2008 resistiendo a la imposición de la carretera Bolaños-Huejuquilla, detenida mediante fuertes movilizaciones, que han llevado a que la comunidad tenga actualmente diversos procedimientos jurídicos interpuestos en materia ambiental, penal y agraria.  

Entre ellos un amparo que ha mantenido detenido en el ámbito jurídico ese megaproyecto, el cual se encuentra en momentos cruciales, pues la Secretaría de Desarrollo Urbano (Sedeur) argumentó tener 400 firmas de aceptación por parte de los comuneros para que se hiciera la carretera. Dentro del juicio de amparo, la Sedeur presentó copias simples de dichas firmas el día 8 de febrero de 2010, señalando que las originales las tiene la PROFEPA, por lo que la comunidad pidió a dicha instancia que las presente y esta contestó que no las tiene. 

El detalle es que esas supuestas firmas no existieron pues la asamblea y la supuesta acta de asamblea son falsificadas. En caso de que las presente, las firmas son también falsas y de ser verdaderas fueron tomadas de manera ilegítima de algún proyecto de gobierno. Por lo que esta situación desnuda la forma de actuar delincuencial por parte de del Gobierno de Jalisco y el gobierno federal, pues en este fraude mayúsculo intervino de manera directa la Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas (CDI).  

Situación que se tensa ante la amenaza Estatal de terminar esa carretera antes de 2012 y el hecho de que la decisión de la asamblea general de que la carretera no atraviese el territorio comunal sigue siendo igual de firme que en febrero de 2008. 

El Contexto en Wirikuta.

 En el territorio sagrado de Wirikuta existen acuerdos basados en estudios biológicos y  ecológicos, se han contado el número de chivos, vacas o caballos que tienen los ejidatarios de la zona y se han hecho múltiples estudios socio económicos y antropológicos. Estos estudios, que han costado importantes sumas de dinero público, han derivado en un decreto de Reserva Ecológica y Cultural, en cuyo Plan de Manejo no se contemplan los aspectos culturales de la relación antigua del desierto y sus habitantes con el pueblo wixárika y el derecho a la peregrinación. 

Esto en violación directa al convenio 169 de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo en su apartado de pueblos indígenas y tribales, sobre plantas psicotrópicas para uso ritual, que es ley suprema en nuestro país, así como en los artículos 2 de la Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, y el artículo 9 de la Constitución del Estado de San Luis Potosí. 

Todos los lineamientos “de manejo” de la Reserva Ecológica y Cultural, se han basado en la imposición de reglamentos que pretenden regular la ancestral peregrinación wixárika, proceso que ha avanzado de manera paralela con la imposición de ordenamientos económicos y políticos neoliberales, así como acuerdos amañados. 

En junio de 2004, en la cabecera municipal de Estación Catorce, SLP. a la que asistieron la Comisión para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indios, la Secretaría de Ecología y Gestión Ambiental de San Luis Potosí, la Coordinación Estatal para la Atención a los Pueblos Indígenas-SLP, la Comisión para Asuntos Indígenas del Congreso potosino y la Procuraduría para Asuntos Indígenas de Jalisco, establecieron “una cuota de extracción personal provisional de 100 cabezas de peyote como máximo”, que “la extracción definitiva anual se haga saber a las autoridades municipales, estatales y de seguridad” y que elaboren un calendario de visitas. Cabe señalar que en ese mismo año, la asamblea general de Tuapurie desconoció los acuerdos antes mencionados.  

Todo esto, se dice, con el fin de evitar la extracción excesiva y “proteger la especie”, lo que lleva a la situación que vive hoy Tuapurie en ese territorio sagrado.  

Por otra parte existe una presión sin precedente para la instalación de grandes jitomateras, en manos de acaudalados terratenientes de Cedral, SLP. cercanos al gobernador del Estado, que compraron cuatrocientas hectáreas de tierras del Ejido Estación Catorce, parceladas por el Programa de Certificación de Derechos Ejidales (PROCEDE) a 15 ejidatarios, para la instalación de agroindustrias jitomateras; dejando desnuda una zona que mide alrededor de 5km por 3km y que está ubicada en uno de los espacios con mayor biodiversidad endémica y con poblaciones importantes de peyote., detonan explosivos en el cielo para dispersar las nubes en esa zona en la que de por sí no llueve y acabaron con miles de cabezas de peyote.

¿Es esa la protección ambiental a la que se refiere la PROFEPA y la policía estatal y que debería defender la CONANP?

Es una situación contemplada en el Plan de Desarrollo Urbano del Estado de San Luis Potosí 2000-2020, que en cada municipio de la ruta sagrada de peregrinación contempla la construcción de caminos, terracerías, electricidad e infraestructura para servir a maquiladoras, minas y agroindustrias.

La situación es delicada y el pueblo wixárika necesita que la sociedad civil en general y  las organizaciones de derechos humanos estén atentos a los acontecimientos en la peregrinación tradicional, así como del hostigamiento gubernamental que se ha hecho de manera sistemática desde febrero de 2008.

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