Que se escuche la palabra indígena

lenguaLa literaturas indígenas buscan Que se abra la palabra,/  Que se escuche la voz de la tierra, Nguitichja één,/ nguitichja t’ananguii…  así expresa Juan Gregorio Regino en un poema mazateco.

En la actualidad se piensa al indígena de manera unitaria —como si todos fueran iguales, una sola cultura—, por lo tanto, también a la literatura indígena. No obstante, es heterogénea, son las literaturas indígenas, pues 68 lenguas ramifican la diversidad de formas de crear y transmitir el pensamiento filosófico de los pueblos indígenas. Éstos enuncian con base a propias visiones y perspectivas que han pasado por un proceso de transformaciones, a partir de los cambios que las otras comunidades aledañas y por supuesto, la cultura occidental, han llevado acabo.

Según Juan Gregorio Regino —Subdirector de Desarrollo de las Culturas Indígenas del Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y la Artes (CONACULTA)— , la literatura indígena es la “creación individual o colectiva (oral o escrita) que se recrea, se piensa y se estructura a partir de los elementos estilísticos y patrones culturales de los pueblos indígenas”.

En cada cultura existen diferentes actitudes y comportamientos; distintos acontecimientos cotidianos e históricos; y disímiles criterios estéticos, que dotan a la creación literaria de una visión individual del creador, por ejemplo, los sentimientos y la plena conciencia de la influencia que recibe de afuera.

Por otro lado, la existencia de una visión que transmite el lenguaje mágico de elementos rituales; los mitos que le dan sustento a la existencia —el arte adivinatorio, las ceremonias de sanación, la petición de buenas cosechas y de lluvias—; y los saberes sagrados la enriquecen más.

El escritor señala que además de la literatura indígena existe la literatura indianista, cuyo nacimiento se debe al movimiento independentista y a la búsqueda de identidad propia.

En ésta se enaltece el resplandor del pasado prehispánico y “las culturas indígenas se convierten en símbolos de resistencia frente al colonialismo español, sin embargo, la valoración de lo indígena es sólo lo externo, pues los escritores de esta literatura no son indígenas, sino portavoces de las culturas oprimidas que no podían levantar la voz”.

Sus principales representantes son Mariano Meléndez Muñoz, Eligio Ancona, Eulogio Palma, Ireneo Paz y José Luis Terrero.

Del gobierno de Lázaro Cárdenas surge la literatura indigenista. Por ejemplo, El Indio de Gregorio López y Fuentes, obra que inicia o marca la corriente en 1935. Esta resalta “aspectos sociales, frecuentan temas como la explotación, la pobreza, la marginación y el choque entre la cultura hispana y las indígenas. Los escritores no pertenecen a la cultura indígena”, así escribe Regino.

La Rebelión de los colgados de Bruno Traven, es una de las obras características de este movimiento, junto con El callado dolor de los tzotziles de Ramón Rubén.

De 1940 a 1960, la literatura indigenista usó la combinación etnográfica con el testimonio, un ejemplo muy claro es Juan Pérez Jolote de Ricardo Pozas. Este elemento identificó a la narrativa verosímil o literatura de la guerrilla en El Salvador; la cual incorporaba testimonios, era un relato híbrido que daba a conocer la situación política del país; era también una estrategia retórica para introducir la voz del protagonista.

En los 50, intentan penetrar la cosmología indígena escritores como Eraclio Zepeda con Benzulul, Rosario Castellanos con Balán Canán, Ciudad real y oficio de tinieblas, y María de Lombardo con La Tapatía….

La literatura en lenguas indígenas es reciente. En ésta los escritores accedieron a las lenguas autóctonas y por ello producen sus textos, emplean la lengua indígena para decir lo que se piensa en castellano.

La literatura  indígena contemporánea se inicia con el escritor zapoteco Andrés Henestrosa; su obra, Los hombres que dispersan la danza, está recreado de las costumbres de su pueblo e introduce vocablos zapotecos en el español que emplea.

 Que hablen los que no tienen rostro./ Que el sufrimiento tome la palabra…, Nguitichja xi jmí kjenjin./ Nguitichja xi kjuanima nchifo’a…

Las creaciones literarias contemporáneas están trazando caminos legibles, bajo el marco de su cultura, sus tradiciones, su forma de vida dentro de su comunidad y afuera.

En entrevista con Patricia Celerina, poeta mixteca, “la literatura indígena es la forma de crear el entorno de tu vida, de tu pueblo, de tu sociedad”. Es una manifestación humana a través de las letras de los pueblos indígenas, desde su cosmovisión. Es la combinación de la memoria histórica con lo que vive actualmente el creador. A través de la escritura manifiestan cómo están pensando y viviendo; de qué están hechos y qué son; responden cuestiones personales que se vuelven colectivas.

Los escritores tratan de transformar su oralidad. Viven entre dos mundos (su pueblo y la influencia occidental). No pueden escribir netamente como es su pueblo, no es posible, porque lo que los hace ser son las dos culturas, así explicó la poeta.

La literatura busca quitar el dominio lingüístico del español, que se reconozca que también hay otras lenguas y otras culturas, que no haya un monopolio de la lengua. Sin embargo, para eso se requiere eliminar los estándares de discriminación y las diferencias explícitas; pues los infantes no quieren hablar la lengua,  tampoco escribir, mucho menos saber de ella, porque se sienten ajenos y excluidos.

Los escritores que están influyendo en la germinación de la literatura indígena actual son Jorge Pesh, Briseida, Natalia Toledo, Claudia Martínez, Víctor de la Cruz, Francisco de la Cruz, Víctor Cata, Juan Hernández, entre otros como Gregorio Regino, Patricia Celerina y Angelina Díaz Ruiz. La mayoría de ellos poetas.

La literatura occidental no deja de influir en la creación literaria indígena. Algunos escritores se valen de los géneros literarios occidentales para expresar temas tradicionales o folkloristas. La literatura indígena se enfrenta a la nula costumbre de oír otros sonidos que no sean los emanados del castellano.

Que hable el corazón./ Que hable el pensamiento./ Que no pida permiso la palabra,/ que fluya aquí, ahora.

Guitichja inimána,/ Nguitichja kjuakjintakuun./ Ngata mi’ajin kjua één, nijmii,/ nguitichja kébi, ngot’e. Final del poema mazateco.

 RL

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