Que se escuche la palabra indígena

lenguaLa literaturas indígenas buscan Que se abra la palabra,/  Que se escuche la voz de la tierra, Nguitichja één,/ nguitichja t’ananguii…  así expresa Juan Gregorio Regino en un poema mazateco.

En la actualidad se piensa al indígena de manera unitaria —como si todos fueran iguales, una sola cultura—, por lo tanto, también a la literatura indígena. No obstante, es heterogénea, son las literaturas indígenas, pues 68 lenguas ramifican la diversidad de formas de crear y transmitir el pensamiento filosófico de los pueblos indígenas. Éstos enuncian con base a propias visiones y perspectivas que han pasado por un proceso de transformaciones, a partir de los cambios que las otras comunidades aledañas y por supuesto, la cultura occidental, han llevado acabo.

Según Juan Gregorio Regino —Subdirector de Desarrollo de las Culturas Indígenas del Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y la Artes (CONACULTA)— , la literatura indígena es la “creación individual o colectiva (oral o escrita) que se recrea, se piensa y se estructura a partir de los elementos estilísticos y patrones culturales de los pueblos indígenas”.

En cada cultura existen diferentes actitudes y comportamientos; distintos acontecimientos cotidianos e históricos; y disímiles criterios estéticos, que dotan a la creación literaria de una visión individual del creador, por ejemplo, los sentimientos y la plena conciencia de la influencia que recibe de afuera.

Por otro lado, la existencia de una visión que transmite el lenguaje mágico de elementos rituales; los mitos que le dan sustento a la existencia —el arte adivinatorio, las ceremonias de sanación, la petición de buenas cosechas y de lluvias—; y los saberes sagrados la enriquecen más.

El escritor señala que además de la literatura indígena existe la literatura indianista, cuyo nacimiento se debe al movimiento independentista y a la búsqueda de identidad propia.

En ésta se enaltece el resplandor del pasado prehispánico y “las culturas indígenas se convierten en símbolos de resistencia frente al colonialismo español, sin embargo, la valoración de lo indígena es sólo lo externo, pues los escritores de esta literatura no son indígenas, sino portavoces de las culturas oprimidas que no podían levantar la voz”.

Sus principales representantes son Mariano Meléndez Muñoz, Eligio Ancona, Eulogio Palma, Ireneo Paz y José Luis Terrero.

Del gobierno de Lázaro Cárdenas surge la literatura indigenista. Por ejemplo, El Indio de Gregorio López y Fuentes, obra que inicia o marca la corriente en 1935. Esta resalta “aspectos sociales, frecuentan temas como la explotación, la pobreza, la marginación y el choque entre la cultura hispana y las indígenas. Los escritores no pertenecen a la cultura indígena”, así escribe Regino.

La Rebelión de los colgados de Bruno Traven, es una de las obras características de este movimiento, junto con El callado dolor de los tzotziles de Ramón Rubén.

De 1940 a 1960, la literatura indigenista usó la combinación etnográfica con el testimonio, un ejemplo muy claro es Juan Pérez Jolote de Ricardo Pozas. Este elemento identificó a la narrativa verosímil o literatura de la guerrilla en El Salvador; la cual incorporaba testimonios, era un relato híbrido que daba a conocer la situación política del país; era también una estrategia retórica para introducir la voz del protagonista.

En los 50, intentan penetrar la cosmología indígena escritores como Eraclio Zepeda con Benzulul, Rosario Castellanos con Balán Canán, Ciudad real y oficio de tinieblas, y María de Lombardo con La Tapatía….

La literatura en lenguas indígenas es reciente. En ésta los escritores accedieron a las lenguas autóctonas y por ello producen sus textos, emplean la lengua indígena para decir lo que se piensa en castellano.

La literatura  indígena contemporánea se inicia con el escritor zapoteco Andrés Henestrosa; su obra, Los hombres que dispersan la danza, está recreado de las costumbres de su pueblo e introduce vocablos zapotecos en el español que emplea.

 Que hablen los que no tienen rostro./ Que el sufrimiento tome la palabra…, Nguitichja xi jmí kjenjin./ Nguitichja xi kjuanima nchifo’a…

Las creaciones literarias contemporáneas están trazando caminos legibles, bajo el marco de su cultura, sus tradiciones, su forma de vida dentro de su comunidad y afuera.

En entrevista con Patricia Celerina, poeta mixteca, “la literatura indígena es la forma de crear el entorno de tu vida, de tu pueblo, de tu sociedad”. Es una manifestación humana a través de las letras de los pueblos indígenas, desde su cosmovisión. Es la combinación de la memoria histórica con lo que vive actualmente el creador. A través de la escritura manifiestan cómo están pensando y viviendo; de qué están hechos y qué son; responden cuestiones personales que se vuelven colectivas.

Los escritores tratan de transformar su oralidad. Viven entre dos mundos (su pueblo y la influencia occidental). No pueden escribir netamente como es su pueblo, no es posible, porque lo que los hace ser son las dos culturas, así explicó la poeta.

La literatura busca quitar el dominio lingüístico del español, que se reconozca que también hay otras lenguas y otras culturas, que no haya un monopolio de la lengua. Sin embargo, para eso se requiere eliminar los estándares de discriminación y las diferencias explícitas; pues los infantes no quieren hablar la lengua,  tampoco escribir, mucho menos saber de ella, porque se sienten ajenos y excluidos.

Los escritores que están influyendo en la germinación de la literatura indígena actual son Jorge Pesh, Briseida, Natalia Toledo, Claudia Martínez, Víctor de la Cruz, Francisco de la Cruz, Víctor Cata, Juan Hernández, entre otros como Gregorio Regino, Patricia Celerina y Angelina Díaz Ruiz. La mayoría de ellos poetas.

La literatura occidental no deja de influir en la creación literaria indígena. Algunos escritores se valen de los géneros literarios occidentales para expresar temas tradicionales o folkloristas. La literatura indígena se enfrenta a la nula costumbre de oír otros sonidos que no sean los emanados del castellano.

Que hable el corazón./ Que hable el pensamiento./ Que no pida permiso la palabra,/ que fluya aquí, ahora.

Guitichja inimána,/ Nguitichja kjuakjintakuun./ Ngata mi’ajin kjua één, nijmii,/ nguitichja kébi, ngot’e. Final del poema mazateco.

 RL

2.890 Comments

  1. Very interesting info !Perfect just what I was searching for! If you want to test your memory, try to recall what you were worrying about one year ago today. by Rotarian.

  2. A buddy of mine recommended your blog on Facebook. I can see why. Great post here.

  3. Simply wanna input on few general things, The website pattern is perfect, the content is rattling fantastic. аЂа‹The way you treat yourself sets the standard for others.аЂа› by Sonya Friedman.

  4. Pretty good post. Ive really enjoyed browsing your website posts. Whatever the case I’ll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you write again soon! Thanks a lot, I’ll try to visit often. Merry Chrismas!

  5. It as not that I want to copy your website, but I really like the style and design. Could you let me know which style are you using? Or was it especially designed?

  6. What i don’t understood is in fact how you are no longer really a lot more smartly-appreciated than you may be now. You’re so intelligent. You already know thus significantly relating to this subject, made me for my part believe it from numerous varied angles. Its like women and men are not interested until it is one thing to accomplish with Lady gaga! Your personal stuffs great. Always take care of it up!

  7. Great website. A lot of useful info here. I am sending it to a few buddies ans additionally sharing in delicious. And of course, thank you to your sweat!

  8. I value the blog post.Really looking forward to read more. Awesome.

  9. There as definately a great deal to know about this topic. I really like all the points you made.

  10. Thanks again for the article.Really thank you! Cool.

  11. There may be noticeably a bundle to know about this. I assume you made sure good factors in features also.

  12. Thanks for the article.Really thank you! Great.

  13. You have brought up a very wonderful points , appreciate it for the post.

  14. Woh I enjoy your content, saved to fav!.

  15. Wow, this post is fastidious, my sister is analyzing such things, thus I am going to let know her.|

  16. Wow, that as what I was seeking for, what a material! existing here at this blog, thanks admin of this website.

  17. They should be fundamental and shocking and go about as a central reason (and relating relationship) to learning English.

  18. Yes, you are correct friend, on a regular basis updating website is in fact needed in support of SEO. Fastidious argument keeps it up.

  19. This particular blog is really cool additionally informative. I have discovered helluva useful things out of this amazing blog. I ad love to go back again and again. Thanks a bunch!

  20. You have made some decent points there. I checked on the net for additional information about the issue and found most individuals will go along with your views on this web site.

  21. Just read this I was reading through some of your posts on this site and I think this internet site is rattling informative ! Keep on posting.

  22. You made a number of fine points there. I did a search on the topic and found mainly persons will agree with your blog.

  23. Usually I don at read article on blogs, but I would like to say that this write-up very pressured me to check out and do it! Your writing style has been amazed me. Thanks, very nice article.

  24. Wow, amazing blog layout! How long have you been blogging for? you made blogging look easy. The overall look of your site is great, let alone the content!

  25. Really appreciate you sharing this article post.Much thanks again. Much obliged.

  26. What aаАаб‚Т€а‚ Going down i am new to this, I stumbled upon this I avаА аЂа• found

  27. This is a beautiful shot with very good lighting.

  28. What as up all, here every person is sharing these kinds of familiarity, thus it as pleasant to read this web site, and I used to pay a visit this website all the time.

  29. Nice blog right here! Additionally your web site so much up fast! What host are you the usage of? Can I get your affiliate link in your host? I desire my site loaded up as fast as yours lol

  30. Thanks for sharing, this is a fantastic blog article.Much thanks again. Will read on

  31. thank you web sites.

  32. Im obliged for the article.Really looking forward to read more. Much obliged.

  33. VRy interesting to read it.

  34. keep it up! I all go ahead and bookmark your site to come back later. Cheers

  35. Sorry for my English.Great blog here! Also your site loads up fast! What host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host? I wish my web site loaded up as quickly as yours lol.

  36. You should be a part of a contest for one of the finest blogs on the internet. I am going to recommend this site!

  37. very nice post, i in fact really like this internet website, maintain on it

  38. Terrific post but I was wanting to know if you could write a litte more on this subject? I ad be very thankful if you could elaborate a little bit further. Kudos!

  39. some money on their incredibly very own, particularly considering of the very

  40. Muchos Gracias for your blog.Really thank you! Great.

  41. I think that is an fascinating point, it made me think a bit. Thanks for sparking my thinking cap. Sometimes I get so much in a rut that I just believe like a record.

  42. wow, awesome article post.Really thank you! Want more.

  43. thank you web sites.

  44. Usually I don at read article on blogs, but I would like to say that this write-up very pressured me to check out and do it! Your writing style has been amazed me. Thanks, very nice article.

  45. You made some clear points there. I did a search on the subject matter and found most people will agree with your site.

  46. There is clearly a bunch to know about this. I suppose you made some nice points in features also.

  47. Nice post. Thanks for sharing this exciting post with us. I enjoy at the time of reading this post. You have done a awesome job by sharing this post with us. Keep it up.

  48. You have observed very interesting points ! ps decent internet site. The appearance of right oft leads us wrong. by Horace.

  49. I truly appreciate this blog article.Thanks Again. Awesome.

  50. Merely wanna say that this is very helpful , Thanks for taking your time to write this.

  51. Thanks again for the article.Thanks Again. Much obliged.

  52. Major thanks for the post.Thanks Again. Cool.

  53. site, I have read all that, so at this time me also

  54. Woh I your articles , saved to favorites !.

  55. My brother suggested I might like this blog. He was entirely right. This post truly made my day. You cann at imagine simply how much time I had spent for this information! Thanks!

  56. Really enjoyed this article post.Really looking forward to read more.

  57. Thank you for the auspicious writeup. It in fact was a amusement account it. Look advanced to more added agreeable from you! By the way, how could we communicate?

  58. We all talk just a little about what you should speak about when is shows correspondence to because Perhaps this has much more than one meaning.

  59. my car charger is well made and very tough. i use it all the time a* a

  60. Of course, what a fantastic blog and educative posts, I surely will bookmark your site.Have an awsome day!

  61. Ita??a?аАа’аАТ‚аЂ s actually a great and helpful piece of info. I am satisfied that you simply shared this helpful info with us. Please keep us informed like this. Thank you for sharing.

  62. wow, awesome blog article.Really thank you! Fantastic.

  63. wonderful points altogether, you just won a emblem new reader. What would you recommend about your publish that you simply made a few days ago? Any positive?

  64. Thanks-a-mundo for the blog post.Thanks Again. Much obliged.

  65. Well I definitely liked studying it. This post procured by you is very useful for proper planning.

  66. I appreciate you sharing this blog article. Much obliged.

  67. I just want to mention I’m all new to blogs and certainly savored you’re web site. More than likely I’m want to bookmark your site . You surely have good writings. Appreciate it for sharing your web page.

  68. Thank you for your blog article.Really looking forward to read more. Will read on…

  69. A big thank you for your blog article.Thanks Again. Want more.

  70. hhtuxbp,Hi there, just wanted to say, I liked this article. It was helpful. Keep on posting!

  71. I just want to mention I’m all new to blogs and certainly savored you’re web site. More than likely I’m want to bookmark your site . You surely have good writings. Appreciate it for sharing your web page.

  72. NiceExcellentGreat blogweblog hereright here! AlsoAdditionally your websitesiteweb site a lotlotsso muchquite a bitrather a lotloads up fastvery fast! What hostweb host are you the use ofusingthe usage of? Can I am gettingI get your associateaffiliate linkhyperlink for youron yourin yourto your host? I desirewantwish my websitesiteweb site loaded up as fastquickly as yours lol

  73. I just want to say I am very new to blogs and truly savored you’re web site. More than likely I’m likely to bookmark your website . You amazingly come with superb articles and reviews. Regards for sharing your webpage.

  74. the purchasers at first utilize their impacted cell, rather asking to their right hand, mates or relatives.

  75. Very good post! We are linking to this particularly great content on our site. Keep up the good writing.

  76. cgaszeawk,This website truly has alll of the information and facts I wanted about this subject and didn?t know who to ask.

  77. We areWe’re a groupa gagglea bunch of volunteers and startingopening a newa brand new scheme in our community. Your siteweb sitewebsite providedoffered us with helpfulusefulvaluable informationinfo to work on. You haveYou’ve performeddone an impressivea formidable taskprocessactivityjob and our wholeentire communitygroupneighborhood will beshall bemight bewill probably becan bewill likely be gratefulthankful to you.

  78. xwidzj,Are you searching for top class Escort service in Noida and want to enjoy with them, hire sexy girls from top Greater Noida escort service and enjoy full night.

  79. This is one awesome blog article.Really looking forward to read more. Keep writing.

  80. Im obliged for the blog post.Really thank you! Want more.

  81. cnktebke,Definitely believe that which you said. Your favourite justification appeared to be on the net the simplest thing to remember of.

  82. This web site truly has all of the info I wanted concerning this subject and didn at know who to ask.

  83. This is one awesome blog.Thanks Again. Cool.

  84. Really enjoyed this blog article.Really looking forward to read more. Great.

  85. Amazing blog layout here. Was it hard creating a nice looking website like this?

  86. I cannot thank you enough for the post.Really looking forward to read more. Cool.

  87. I visited several sites however the audio quality for audio songs current at this

  88. Spot on with this write-up, I truly think this website needs much more consideration. I all probably be again to read much more, thanks for that info.

  89. vuonzeauw,Some really nice stuff on this website, I enjoy it.

  90. GreatExcellentWonderfulGoodVery good articlepost! We will beWe are linking to thisto this particularly great articlepostcontent on our siteour website. Keep up the goodthe great writing.

Leave a Reply

Tu dirección de correo electrónico no será publicada. Los campos obligatorios están marcados con *

*