Roteiros oswaldianos

Oswald de Andrade

ANDRÉ CARNEIRO RAMOS |

O cinema brasileiro quase sempre se colocou “contra todas as catequeses”. Nesse ínterim, a partir dos anos 60, um posicionamento passou a permear a ótica de nossos criadores das telas, que procuraram incitar – cada qual no seu estilo – a cultura nacional e popular brasileira por meio de novos movimentos cinematográficos. Em se tratando de terceiro mundo, é interessante pensarmos que tais “abalos” (o Cinema Novo e o Manifesto da Estética da Fome, aliados a outros, como o Tropicalismo na música popular brasileira e a poesia marginal da década de 70) se fortaleceram a partir uma utopia da liberdade. Junto a isso se assoma os mecanismos de conscientização política que circundou o país ao longo desse efervescente intervalo moderno.

Outrora aos movimentos citados, os filmes brasileiros se efetivaram criativamente dentro de uma seara original, porém descontínua, haja vista terem se pautado pelos ciclos regionais (como o valoroso cinema de Cataguases, de Humberto Mauro), pelos esforços de autores isolados (caso de Mário Peixoto e seu clássico Limite, de 1930), ou pela original e não menos alegre tentativa de recriação de uma estética hollywoodiana (caso das chanchadas da Atlântida, na década de 40, bem como as produções artísticas da Vera Cruz, na década de 50). Na contramão dessas produções, o que se propagou foi uma espécie de esquecimento dos ditames modernistas de 22.

A partir desse enfoque, um exemplo: o romance regional na literatura brasileira, que prosseguia repetindo sua gênese rotineira quase que de modo insistente (exclui-se dessa observação, diga-se de passagem, a obra do escritor Graciliano Ramos).

Retomando, somente a partir de produções como O cangaceiro (1953), Rio 40 graus (1955), Vidas secas (1963) e Deus e o diabo na terra do sol (1964) é que o cinema brasileiro ampliaria antropofagicamente suas temáticas e técnicas de produção. A máxima cinemanovista uma câmera na mão, uma idéia na cabeça revolucionaria a cultura neste renascido “matriarcado de Pindorama”, após um período de jejum que abarcou (como vimos, tendo algumas exceções) os anos 40 e 50.

Todavia, um toque “devorador” acabaria por se evidenciar nesse renascimento cinematográfico verde-amarelo…

Surge-nos então, aqui, nesta nossa reflexão, a presença forte de Oswald de Andrade!

Recriando a respeito de um novo Brasil, sobre sua inocência, suas necessidades, seu ímpeto com a história e o povo, Oswald criou e recriou inicialmente sobre a poesia, como poeta instigante e destruidor de paradigmas, num alerta à construção e transmissão da experiência moderna de um novo posicionamento cultural, batizado antropofágico. Propôs que na literatura e em outras artes a palavra se cristalizaria, segundo ele próprio afirmava, numa “contribuição milionária de todos os erros”, pois que nessa vertigem o Brasil amadureceria esteticamente. E sob tal redescoberta (libertação da alma tupi e seus esconderijos), e não somente a literatura, mas todas as outras formas de arte teriam de insistir em deixar de se portar como reféns da tradição: contra ela, revigorar-se-iam na condição de expressões de uma peculiar alegria.

Os artistas passariam a procurar isso numa outra estação, difusa da linguagem. Eis que nessa busca, segundo o criador do Manifesto da Poesia Pau-Brasil, tal essência existiria nos fatos.

Essa nova perspectiva teria um mote certeiro: encarar o mundo sem agregar-se a fórmulas; com mentes e olhos livres. Desse modo, tudo passaria a funcionar como uma espécie de “auxílio luxuoso” na procura por uma autenticidade brasileira que pudesse destilar um tom de persistência.

No entanto, Oswald se preocupou também em agir sob o efeito de uma arte epifânica e catártica, ou seja, foi um artista que se mobilizou a favor de um posicionamento regional de expurgo dos mitos, da religião, da filosofia e da herança de uma quase morbidez romântica, fazendo a cultura brasileira se confrontar na cabeça do público-leitor recém-chegado ao século XX; a essa altura, a linguagem poético-transgressora oswaldiana se mostrava provocativa e inspiradora.

Daí, num viés pragmático, o Cinema Novo chegaria, anos mais tarde, a incluir esse momento histórico e transformador em seu modus operandi como uma espécie de eixo para suas transformações vanguardistas;  e sob este vislumbre utópico, deixou transparecer vida a partir das questões sociais e culturais que se revelariam ferozmente no movimento.

Cinema Novo, enfim. Idealizado por cineastas como Glauber Rocha, Nelson Pereira dos Santos, Ruy Guerra e Carlos Diegues, dentre outros, tal estética acabou se fortalecendo como representante posterior do matriarcado e da antropofagia oswaldiana, que se ratificava em meio às carências sociais brasileiras da década de sessenta do século passado. Mais do que uma estética pura e simples (ou preconceituosa e obtusa), tais cineastas passariam a acreditar que seria possível, por intermédio de “empíricas” produções, despertar nas grandes massas uma consciência de transformação por meio de uma arte em consonância com o real e suas mazelas.

Por esse levantamento preliminar podemos inferir que a ótica do Cinema Novo era também vista como uma “deglutição” latino-americana das últimas vanguardas estéticas advindas da Europa – o neorrealismo italiano e a nouvelle vague francesa –, interagindo antropofagicamente com elas na medida em que renegou e/ou retransformou o cosmopolitismo da “corte” europeia (que sempre agiu com total senso de superioridade, definindo o que os países pobres deviam ou não fazer); a câmera cinemanovista se insurgia, desse modo, para desestruturar tal centro, ao reposicionar a periferia no centro…

Esse vetor significativo parece conter, nem que seja de um modo ressonante apenas, a atuação inovadora do processo de modernização da arte brasileira iniciado em 1922, com um destaque para o movimento Pau-Brasil e a contribuição artística, política e ideológica da Antropofagia.

À maneira exclusivamente estética[1] de Oswald e os modernistas de 22, o cosmopolitismo se inverte a partir de uma exaltação da cultura terceiro mundista, pois que nesse reposicionamento criativo-criador uma extremada rebeldia contra a opressão passaria a funcionar. A essa altura, hoje em dia, podemos perceber igualmente acirrada a criação de uma atitude internacional em prol da cultura brasileira, esta representada pela Sétima Arte e representativa de nossa oprimida América Latina.

Todo esse cosmopolitismo citado, somado à obstinação de uma cinematografia feita em um Brasil rebatizado oswaldianamente de “Pindorama”, fez-se ímpar na relação de consonância e aceitação promovida pelo Cinema Novo. Estar nesse momento ligado ao mundo (numa escala difusa das épocas anteriores: agora em primeiríssimo plano!) haveria de se constituir como fato inusitado e primordial, o que contribuiria para a revelação de uma face cultural brasileira e, sobretudo, latino-americana, quase que sucessivamente avaliada como “irrelevante”.

E ainda hoje, em se tratando de Brasil, sobreviveria um legado a sustentar o imaginário messiânico e apocalíptico de Oswald de Andrade. Estes seus “roteiros”, ora desconhecidos e conhecidos por todos, ora execrados por alguns e amado por muitos, efetivam-se na recomposição de um personagem tupiniquim que se reconstrói dia a dia a partir de sua obra, antropofagizado enquanto fenômeno que foi. Um grito poético e libertário da Semana de 22 seguiria resistindo às vicissitudes e ao caos pós-moderno estabelecido, na medida em que Glauber Rocha e alguns de seus contemporâneos (como que procuradores oswaldianos e modernos da modernidade) encarnaram seus posteriores papéis na cinematografia “Pindorama” deixando “herdeiros”, o que resultaria numa incumbência: a ampliação dessa antiga utopia, preservando a máxima “contra todas as catequeses”.

De modo a concluir tais considerações, faz-se possível também conjecturar que o Cinema Novo – a partir de notórias qualidades que se aglutinaram, diga-se de passagem, às imagens em movimento definidas num grau neorrealista – não se fortaleceu, simplesmente, por vociferar um discurso acerca da estética terceiro-mundista no Brasil e na América Latina dos anos sessenta do século passado, mas porque as produções dessa época até hoje muito nos fazem compreender sobre o que somos, visto que assimilou com todas as forças um espólio discursivo-modernista sobre a importância de se valorizar a identidade cultural brasileira e latino-americana, bem como o seu grande valor frente aos eternos colonizadores.

Num país de contrastes, essa visão cinematográfico-libertária transformou-se, de modo curioso, em celebrada contramão vanguardista. Num efeito transgressor, esse resultado agigantou-se, espalhado que está pelos quatro cantos do globo que, para nós brasileiros, permanecerá oswaldianamente devorado.

| RMM | ACR | 


[1]A obstinação do Cinema Novo caminhou mais além do viés estético pregado pela Semana de 22; preocupava-se com o social, à cata que estavam de um viés político que pudesse configurar-se transformador.

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